Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Senna tora
(L.) Roxb., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cassia tora L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: amot-tumaga carabao, mumutong palaéan, mumutun admelon, mumutun palaoan

Chinese: jue ming

English: foetid cassia, Java bean, low senna, peanut weed, sickle senna, sicklepod, stinking cassia

Fijian: kaumoce, kaumothe, pini

French: cassepuante, cassier sauvage, fausse pistache, herbe pistache, pois puant, séné

Hindi: tarota

Japanese: ebisugusa

Rotuman: pin

Samoan: vao pinati, vao pīnati, vao pinati, vao pīnati, vao sei

Spanish: bicho, bicho macho, brusca cimarrona, chilinchil, comida de murcielago, ororuz

Tongan: pipi ppālangi, te‘ekosi, te‘epulu, tega fefeka, tengafefeka

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herbs, suffrutescent, annual, erect, 1-2 m tall. Leaves 4-8 cm; stipules caducous, linear, 10-15 mm; petiole without glands; rachis with a club-shaped gland between leaflets; petiolules 1.5-2 mm; leaflets 3 pairs, obovate or obovate-oblong, 2-6 x 1.5-2.5 cm, membranous, abaxially pubescent, adaxially sparsely pubescent, base cuneate to rounded and oblique, apex rounded, cuspidate. Racemes axillary, short, 1- or 2 (or 3)-flowered; peduncles 6-10 mm; bracts linear, acute. Pedicels 1-1.5 cm. Sepals ovate or ovate-oblong, 5-8 mm, membranous, outside pubescent. Petals yellow, unequal, obovate, lower 2 slightly longer, 12-15 x 5-7 mm, shortly clawed. Fertile stamens 7, nearly equal, filaments 1.5-2 mm, anthers opening by apical pores, ca. 4 mm, 3 larger, 4 smaller, staminodes absent. Ovary sessile, densely white pubescent; style glabrous. Legume terete, subtetragonous, slender, 10-15 x 0.3-0.5 cm, both ends acuminate, valves membranous. Seeds 20-30, glossy, rhomboid, ca. 5 x 3 mm, with an areole"  (Flora of China online).

"A small erect glabrous shrub; to 90 cm tall; leaves to 7.5 cm long, with 2-4 pairs of obovate, blunt, or minutely mucronate, ciliate-margined leaflets, each 1-4 cm long; a gland on the rachis between the lowest pair (or lower 2 pairs) of leaflets; flowers paired in axils, yellow, about 9 mm broad, on a 6 mm pedicel; 3 of the stamens infertile; pod very slender, linear, somewhat curved, 12-25 cm long, 3-6 mm wide, beaked, membranous, with broad sutures; seeds about 20-30, nearly 3 mm long, brown, flat" (Stone, 1970; p. 311).

See also Senna occidentalis.

Habitat/ecology:  "It occurs abundantly in open pastures and in pastures under coconuts, and is very common on roadsides and wasteland.  It tolerates fairly low soil fertilities and moisture levels, but grows tallest where conditions are better, when it may form solid stands to the exclusion of all other plants"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 15).

In Fiji, "cultivated near sea level and also naturalized on cleared land and becoming a weed in villages and thickets up to an elevation of 900 m"  (Smith, 1985; pp. 110-111). In New Guinea, "a weed of cultivation and roadsides, and particularly troublesome in pastures. In lowland areas with a seasonal climate" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 115). In Tonga, "an occasional waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 136). In New Caledonia, "largement répandue en lieux incultes bien que tous les spécimens vus soient récents; devient très envahissant dans les pâturages améliorés du Nord-Ouest de la Grande-Terre; le bétail ne la mange pas" (MacKee, 1994; p. 74).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Paleotropical, from India and Ceylon eastward into Polynesia, but not indigenous east of Melanesia and perhaps not there" (Smith, 1985; pp. 110-111). India to China, the Philippines and the Solomon Islands, exact range obscure; widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 91)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 153587)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 652575)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia tora L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 15)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2774 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 153634)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 47556)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1860) (voucher ID: BISH 593005)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia tora L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Voucher cited: DA 2939
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 896
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Voucher cited: Bryan 261
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 153608)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 614903)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia tora L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 638037)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia tora L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4461.4, DA 8923
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 153609)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 153610)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Vouchers cited: DA 8745, Greenwood 206B, Krauss 1021
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 153611)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Voucher cited: DA 10232
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 32827)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 110-111)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 206, DA 9686, Smith 4500, Degener 14981, DA 5958, DA 9779, DA 10732, DA 9525, DA 3372, DA 11279, H.B.R. Parham 9, Meebold 16462
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 32828)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 153604)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 153605)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 153606)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1919) (voucher ID: BISH 153607)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 311-312)
Voucher cited: Stone 4867 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 99)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 153664)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 153665)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 652574)
Taxon name on voucher: Cassia tora L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1953) (voucher ID: PTBG 22396)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Largement répandue en lieux incultes; devient très envahissante dans les pâturages améliorés du Nord-Ouest de la Grande-Terre.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 74)
Vouchers cited: Blanchon 797, MacKee 35154, MacKee 39180, Saint-Quentin in MacKee 44936, Auriac in MacKee 44986
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 36)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 12)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (pp. 218-219)
Not frequent. The plant spreads quickly once introduced.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 115)
In lowland areas with a seasonal climate; not yet very common.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 265)
A very common weed in the settled areas at low and medium altitudes. Where native uncertain.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Voucher: Flynn 6948 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 153591)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 282)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28603)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 153589)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 153590)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands probably native
Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 75)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Voucher: Flynn 6906 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 228)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 15351, Lawrence 59, Lawrence 116, Soakai 403, Soakai 800
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 136)
Vouchers cited: Hülimann 144, Yuncker 15078
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41225)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41258)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41299)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 153579)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1926) (voucher ID: BISH 153580)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 403395)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 69)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Soakai 883
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 136)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16085
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 153581)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 698061)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna tora (L.) Roxb.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 168)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
As Cassia tora. Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 27)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Mountain slopes, wastelands, riverbank sand. Widespread to south of the Chang Jiang".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 136)
As Cassia tora L. Common in Hong Kong.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 171)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 168)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 184)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 70)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 168)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 79)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant.
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)

Comments:  Especially invasive on the island of ‘Eua, Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).

For Galápagos Islands, see S. obtusifolia.

Control: 

Physical:  "Germination may be prevented by mulches if thick enough and undisturbed, but the large seeds give the seedlings great vigor.  Susceptible to hand weeding, chipping and cultivation.  Unpalatable to stock.  Competition from pasture species will probably give control, but it tolerates shade.  Slashing only prevents seeding temporarily"  (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 22).

Chemical:  "Probably susceptible to: 1) residual herbicides at standard rates; 2) translocated herbicides at standard rates, including wick-wiping with glyphosate.  Susceptible to aciflourfen at standard rate.  Probably susceptible to most herbicides suitable for controlling broad-leaved weeds except 'hormones' formulated with butyric acid" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 22).

Biological: See Waterhouse and Norris (1987) for identification of natural enemies.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 13 DEC 2010.