Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Senna septemtrionalis
(Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cassia laevigata Willd.; Cassia septemtrionalis Viv.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: guang ye jue ming

English: arsenic bush, buttercup bush, Dooleyweed, laburnum, smooth senna, yellow shower

Fijian: mosimosi, naseni karakarawa, winivinikau

Hawaiian: kalamona, kolomona

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Leafy shrubs or small trees 1-5 (-6.5) m tall.  Leaflets 3-4 (5) pairs, the distal ones larger, broadly ovate to lanceolate, (3.5-) 4.5-10.5 cm long, (1.1-) 1.4-3.5 cm wide, glabrous, lower surface pale, apex acuminate or caudate, base obliquely rounded or cuneate, petiolar nectaries between all pairs or all but the distal pair of leaflets, none contiguous to pulvinus, the lowest one 1-2 mm long, stipules submembranous, narrowly lanceolate, 3-7 mm long, caducous.  Flowers in racemes (1.5-) 2.5-8 cm long, pedicels (12-) 15-25 mm long, bracts sub-membranous, linear, lanceolate, or subulate, (1.5-) 2-4.5 mm long, caducous as pedicels begin to elongate; calyx lobes yellowish green, yellowish brown, or completely yellow, the outer ones relatively firm, ovate-elliptic, 4-6.5 mm long, the inner ones submembranous, oblong-obovate or suborbicular, 6.5-10 mm long; petals bright yellow, the standard obovate to obovate-flabellate, deeply emarginate, the others obovate, the longest petal 12-16 mm long; staminodes 3, obovate or suborbicular, (1.7-) 2-2.6 mm long; filaments of 4 median stamens 1.3-2.2 mm long, those of 2 abaxial stamens dilated, ribbon-like, 7-10.5 mm long, that of abaxial central stamen 2-4 mm long.  Pods ascending on a stiff pedicel, chartaceous, cylindrical or obtusely quadrangular, 6-10.5 cm long, 0.8-1.1 cm wide, cavity moderately pulpy, divided into 2 parallel rows of of cells.  Seeds oriented with broad face to the septum, olive or brown, compressed-obovoid, 3.6-4.9 mm long, constricted at the hilum, smooth or minutely pitted, without an areole"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 701-702).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized primarily at low elevations in dry, disturbed areas, but occasionally at higher elevations in pastures and even margins of wet forest, 150-1,160 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 701-702).  In Fiji, "cultivated near sea level and also naturalized on cleared land and becoming a weed in villages and thickets up to an elevation of 900 m" (Smith, 1985; p. 111). In New Caledonia, "peu planté; assez répandu en lieux incultes" (MacKee, 1994; p. 73).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mexico and southward to Costa Rica, widely cultivated for ornament and medicinal use and widely naturalized (Smith, 1985; p. 111).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"Originally escaped from cultivation". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 3329 (NSW), A.C. Beauglehole 5855 (NSW)., 1898, J.H. Maiden (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"Originally escaped from cultivation". Vouchers cited: P. Ralston 32 (A), G. Uhe 1223 (K), G. Uhe 1121 (K)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 111)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 24, 24Z; Smith 4113; Degener 14735; Parks 20842; Seemann 136; DA 12142; DA 16083; Gillespie 4080
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 14478)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 32816)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 153615)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 153616)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 153617)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 153618)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna septemtrionalis (Viv.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Engilis 20 (BISH), Takeuchi 5784 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 701-702)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1996) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: C.N. Forbes 277.L (BISH), G.C. Munro 169 (BISH), G.C. Munro 317 (BISH), G.C. Munro 393 (BISH).
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 701-702)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 701-702)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 701-702)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Cassia floribunda in Swarbrick.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n. s.loc., Schlechter 15579,Cribs 1463, Däniker 687 (Z), Buchholz 1327, Veillon 1 (NOU), MacKee 12648, MacKee 16088
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 637)
"Established locally in waste places, old gardens, and open forest".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 80)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 455)
Subject of control program.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 7)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated in Guangdong, Guangxi".
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 637)
"Established locally in waste places, old gardens, and open forest".
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 25 OCT 2006.