Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Senna occidentalis
(L.) Link, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cassia occidentalis L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: amot tumagá, amot-tumaga, amot-tumaga karabao, karabao, mumutong sapble, mumutun-sable

Chinese: wang jiang nan

Chuukese: afanafan

English: antbush, arsenic bean, coffee senna, coffee weed

Fijian: kau mothe, kavmoce, pini

French: bentamaré, café bâtard, café nège, casse-café, casse-puante, dartrier, gros indigo sauvage, quinquiliba, souveraine

Hawaiian: ‘au‘auko‘i, ‘auko‘i, mikipalaoa, pī hohono

I-Kiribati: te katia

Maori (Cook Islands): parenga

Mokilese: apschoh

Nauruan: tan braua

Palauan: kerieu, korriu, kurriu

Samoan: lau matui, lau matui

Spanish: aya-porotillo, aya-poroto, bataban, bricho, brusca, cafe de bonpland, cafecillo, frijolillo, guanina, hedionda, mezquitillo

Tongan: pi, te‘epulu, tengafefeka

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "The species varies from a semi-woody annual herb in warm temperate areas to a woody annual shrub or sometimes a short-lived perennial shrub in frost-free areas (Haselwood and Motter 1966, Henty and Pritchard 1975, Holm and others 1997). It usually matures at from 0.5 to 2.0 m in height. In Brazil it is reported to reach 5 to 8 m in height (Raintree 2002). Coffee senna produces a hard, woody tap root with relatively few laterals. It usually has a single purplish stem and sparse branching. Young stems are four-angled, becoming rounded with age. The crushed foliage has an unpleasant odor. Compound alternate leaves have four to six pairs of glabrous leaflets and a gland near the base of the petiole. Leaflets are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base. Inflorescences are few-flowered axillary racemes with yellow-petaled flowers about 2 cm across. The legumes (pods) are brown, flat, slightly curved and 5 to 12 cm long. They contain 40 or more brown to dark-olive, ovoid seeds about 4 mm long (Henty and Pritchard 1975, Liogier 1988, Long and Lakela 1976, Stevens and others 2001)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

"Small annual shrub, to 1.2 m tall; stems ribbed, glabrous; petiole with gland at base; leaves to 15 cm long, with usually 4-6 pairs of elliptic or lanceolate acuminate glabrous leaflets each 3-7.5 cm long, the terminal pair largest; flowers in racemes, yellow, nearly 1 cm broad; 3 of the stamens infertile; pod linear, glabrous, 10-15 cm long, about 6 mm wide, the margins somewhat thickened, with about 20-30 flat, ovate, brown seeds each 3 mm long"  (Stone, 1970; p. 311).

Habitat/ecology:  In Guam, "an agricultural pest, a roadside weed, a back-yard volunteer, and a school-field immigrant"  (Stone, 1970; p. 311).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized primarily in dry, disturbed habitats such as pastures, pineapple or cane fields, 0-1,310 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 700-701).  In Fiji, "often locally abundant as a weed at elevations from near sea level to 850 m along roadsides, in canefields, coconut plantations, pastures, and open fields, and sometimes on river banks or sand dunes" (Smith, 1985; pp. 112-113).  "Occasional to common in waste places and croplands" (Whistler, 1988; p. 27). In the Galápagos Islands, "in waste places, in meadows, along roadsides, and in crevices in lava flows, from near sea level to 250 m" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 603-605). In New Guinea, "sometimes a weed of gardens, but particularly an invader of heavily-grazed pastures. From near sea level to 700 m, sporadic in occurrence" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 114). In New Caledonia, "commun dans des lieux incultes; parfois cultivé comme plante médicinale" (MacKee, 1994; p. 74).

Propagation:  "Seed is dispersed in mud adhering to vehicles, machinery, animal hooves and fur or as a contaminant of hay, fodder and pasture seed.  Seeds may be eaten by stock with mature seed germinating in the dung." (Smith, 2002; pp. 38-39).

Native range:  Tropical America, now pan-tropical (Stone, 1970; p. 311).  "Possibly native to the Old World" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 700-701).  Probably paleotropical (Smith, 1985; pp. 112-113).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Manu‘a Islands introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (pp. 17-18)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 2152 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Anderson 410 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 526 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L), Fosberg 31352 (US), Moore 348 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58989
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Evans 2441 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 75)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2414 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 96)
Vouchers cited: S.F. Glassman 2414 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1880 (BISH), C.Y.C. Wong 65 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46677 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 112-113)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 894
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 112-113)
Voucher cited: Tothill 134
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 112-113)
Vouchers cited: Gillespie 4664, DA 8905
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 112-113)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 258C, DA 10778
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 112-113)
Vouchers cited: Tothill 462, DA 10705, Degener 14979, DA 17329, DA 9760, DA 11346, DA 10737, Greenwood 258A, DA 3369, DA 9951, DA 6089
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1010 (PAP), J.-C. Thibault 1030 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9329 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 9227)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1960) (voucher ID: PTBG 13219)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 8779)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39709)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1098 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9302 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6712 (PAP), J. Florence 8517 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4430 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: Grant 5338
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11753 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 162)
Vouchers cited: Moore 7, Moore 688, BRY 26400, BRY 26627
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: Florence 2561
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2561 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3012 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10101 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2055 (US)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11317 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 311)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4158 (GUAM), Stone 4500 (GUAM), Stone 4734 (GUAM), Stone 4869 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 700-701)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 700-701)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 700-701)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Meidell, J. Scott/Bartlett, R. T. (1999) (p. 8)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H79805 (BISH), Oppenheimer H89803 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110130 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 700-701)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 700-701)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 756 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 24)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (p. 42)
A weed in open places among coconut trees.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 78)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 79)
Voucher: Imada 2003-114 (BISH 697725)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 75)
Voucher: Imada 2003-52 (BISH 697667)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 55)
Vouchers cited: Herbst 8947, Whistler 11174
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34184 (US)
Persisting after cultivation.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 80)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0515200901
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 141-142)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58529 (US), Scully 128N (US), Thaman & Manner 13 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9547 (BRIU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Tiga introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 73-74)
Voucher cited: MacKee 45849
spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 73-74)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., Balansa 303, Däniker 23a (Z), MacKee 25508, MacKee 28513, MacKee 36507
spontané; "naturalisé à Nouméa"
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 56)
Not common. Voucher cited: CHR 169774
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 27)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Voucher)
Voucher: Flynn 6693 (PTBG, US, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 36)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 60)
Infrequent. Voucher cited: Yuncker 9728 (BISH)
"Infrequent on rocky ckiffs near the sea".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 46)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 30193)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis (L.) Link
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 434)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 433)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 218)
Common, widespread.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 114)
From near sea level to 700 m, sporadic in occurrence.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 65)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 69)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 264)
At low and medium altitudes, a weed in waste places in and about towns.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 27)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 56)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Soakai 299
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 135)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15708
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 135)
Cited: Lister.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 32)
Vouchers cited: Lawrence 63, Ilolahia 110, Soakai 464, Soakai 488
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 35)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 27)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 38-39)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (pp. 38-39)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 69)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 168)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 69)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Among shrubs on riverbanks, wilderness tracts, hills, sparse forests, wastelands near villages. S. regions of China".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 136)
As Cassia occidentalis L.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 162)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 184)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 168)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 79)
Naturalised
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 127)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Chagos Archipelago uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 151)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 844 (K, US), Soddart 824 (K), Rhyne 749 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 28)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37927)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna occidentalis (L.) Link
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 11)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 20)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 123)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 181)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2828 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 150)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3144 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52069 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 51)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2692
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Groupe d'Aldabra uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 192)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 161)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3008 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2366 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)

Comments:  The seeds may be used as a substitute for coffee.

A declared noxious weed in the Northern Territory, Australia (Smith, 2002; pp. 38-39).

Control: 

Chemical:  "The species can be controlled with broadleaf herbicides (Henty and Prichard 1975)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 5 DEC 2010.