Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Senna didymobotrya
(Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cassia didymobotrya Fresen.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chang sui jue ming

English: African senna, candelabra tree, peanut butter cassia

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Spreading, foetid shrubs 1-5 m tall.  Leaflets (8) 9-16 (-18) pairs, slightly smaller at either end of the rachis, elliptic-oblong, 2-6.5 cm long, 0.8-2.5 cm wide, pubescent or upper surface sometimes glabrous, apex obtuse to subacute, aristate-mucronate, base obliquely rounded to subcordate, petiolar nectaries absent, stipules reflexed, ovate-cordate, 6-17 mm long, tardily deciduous.  Flowers in racemes 10-40 cm long, pedicels 4-10 mm long, bracts petaloid, brownish green to blackish green, (8-) 10-17 mm long; calyx lobes oblong-obovate, 9-14 mm long; petals bright yellow, subequal, oblong-obovate to obovate, 17-27  mm long; filaments of 4 median stamens 2.5-3.3 mm long, those of 2 fertile stamens 3-4 mm long, that of abaxial stamen 4-5 mm long; anthers of 4 median stamens and central one sterile.  Pods spreading or ascending, chartaceous at maturity, linear-oblong, strongly compressed, 7-12 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm wide, dehiscent, the cavity with narrow membranous interseminal septa.  Seeds pale tan overlain with brownish green, compressed, 6-8 mm long, smooth or obscurely pitted, cracked with age, the areole 3-4 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 698-699).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and woodland, forests, riparian habitats, coastal scrub.  A shrub that grows commonly in riverine habitats and damp forst edges in the native range.  Where invasive, it forms dense impenetrable thickets that impede the growth and regeneration of native plants and affect wildlife movement"  (Weber, 2003; p. 399).

In Hawai‘i, "widely cultivated at low elevations and sparingly naturalized or persisting after cultivation"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 699).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical Africa (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 699).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 699)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 54990)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 699)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 10583)
Taxon name on voucher: Senna didymobotrya (Fresen.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in Hainan, Yunnan (?).
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 21 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 6 JAN 2008.