Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Schleichera oleosa
(Lour.) Oken, Sapindaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Schleichera trijuga Willd.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Ceylon-oak, lactree, Macassar oiltree, Malay lactree

French: pongro, quenettier rose

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Dioecious, deciduous tree, up to 40 m tall. Bole occasionally up to 2 m in diameter, but generally much less, usually crooked and slightly buttressed. Bark smooth, grey. Branches terete, striate, with sparse, short fulvous sericeous hairs when young and with sessile glands, black, later yellowish-brown to ashy. Leaves parinnate, (2-) 3 (-4)-jugate, the topmost leaflet sometimes situated like a terminal leaflet; axial parts usually early glabrescent; petiole terete to somewhat flattened or slightly grooved above, 2-6 (-8) cm long, pulvinate; rachis terete to triangular; petiolule swollen, slightly grooved above, 1-3 mm long; leaflets elliptical to obovate, 4.5-18.5 (-25) cm x 2.5-9 cm, chartaceous to coriaceous, dark brown or greyish-green above, lighter brown to greenish beneath, deep purple when young, base subacute to cuneata, often oblique, margin entire to repandous, apex obtuse or emarginate, sometimes shortly acuminate, veins in 12-15 pairs, looped and joined near the margin. Inflorescence 6-15 cm long, situated in the defoliated part of branchlets above leaf scars, sometimes axillary, consisting of a few simple (female) or sparsely branched (male) thyrses, the basal part with scattered, many-flowered fascicles, the upper part spicate, sparsely hairy; flowers functionally unisexual, pale yellow or pale green; pedicel up to 5 mm long; sepals 4-5, connate at base, lobes ovate to deltoid, about 1.5 mm long, obtuse to acute, with thin hairs on both sides, margin ciliate and sometimes glandular, deciduous in fruit; disk uninterrupted, petelliform, sinuate; petals absent; stamens 5-9, filaments about 2 mm long, sparsely hairy, much reduced in female flowers; ovary ovoid, slightly 3-angular and indistinctly 3-sulcate, about 1.3 mm long, style rather thick, up to 1.5 mm long, pistil much reduced in male flowers. Fruit a broadly ovoid, ellipsoid to subglobular berry, 1-2 seeded, 1.5-2.5 cm x 1-2 cm, base narrowed, apex pointed, yellow, hard-crustaceous, smooth or slightly spiny. Seed subglobular, about 12 mm x 10 mm x 8 mm, hilum orbicular, testa brown, smooth, glabrous; arillode completely covering the seed, thin papery, yellow." (AgroForestryTree Database reference now defunct)

Habitat/ecology:  "Occurs spontaneously in dry, mixed deciduous forest and savanna with only scattered trees, sometimes gregariously. In Java, it is found in areas with natural teak forest. It grows on rather dry to occasionally swampy locations on various, often rocky, gravelly or loamy, well drained, preferable slightly acid soil. S.oleosa is fire-resistant. Seedling are frost sensitive and light-demanding. Altitude: In Java, it occurs usually at low altitudes, but can be found up to 900 (-1200) m; Annual rainfall: 750-2500 mm and dry season; Absolute maximum temperatures: 35-47.5° C; Absolute minimum temperatures: -2.5° C." (AgroForestryTree Database reference now defunct)

Propagation:  "Natural regeneration is by seed and root suckers." (AgroForestryTree Database reference now defunct)

Native range:  "Occurs naturally from the foothills of the Himalayas and the western Deccan to Sri Lanka and Indo-China. It was probably introduced to Malesia and has naturalized in Indonesia (Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali and Nusa Tenggara), Sulawesi, the Moluccas, Ceram and the Kai Islands). It is occasionally cultivated throughout the tropics, especially in India." (AgroForestryTree Database reference now defunct)


Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
Randall, R. P. (2007) (p. 436)
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 78)

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This page was created on 23 MAR 2013 and was last updated on 1 APR 2013.