Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Samanea saman
(Jacq.) Merr., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Albizia saman (Jacaq.) F. v. Muell.; Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.

Common name(s): [more details]

Carolinian: filinganga

Chamorro: tronkon mames

Chinese: yu shu

English: cow tamarind, French tamarind, monkeypod, rain tree, saman, sirisa

Fijian: vaivai ni vavalagi, vaivai ni vavalangi

French: arbre de pluie

Hawaiian: ‘ohai, pū ‘ohai

Japanese: America-nemu

Samoan: tamalini, tamalini

Spanish: samán

Tongan: kasia

Yapese: gumor ni spanis

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees, 10-25 m tall. Branchlets puberulent to tomentose. Petiole 15-40 cm; pinnae 3-5(or 6) pairs, to 15 cm; glands at junctions of pinnae and leaflets; leaflets 3-8 pairs per pinna, asymmetrically oblong, 2-4 x 1-1.8 cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially shiny, base half rounded, half truncate, apex rounded or obtuse, often emarginate and mucronulate. Heads 1-5, together axillary, 5-6 cm in diameter; peduncles 5-6 cm. Marginal flowers pedicellate; calyx funnel-shaped, ca. 6 mm; corolla red or yellowish red, ca. 1.2 cm; stamens white at base, purple toward apex, ca. 3.5 cm; staminal tube shorter than corolla tube. Central flowers sessile; corolla to 1.2 cm; staminal tube longer than corolla. Legume black, oblong, compressed, 10-20 x 1.2-2.5 cm, sutures thickened, septate between seeds. Seeds brown, ellipsoidal, ca. 8 x 5 mm"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  Commonly planted for shade and wood.  In Hawai‘i, "a popular shade and street tree, now naturalized in disturbed areas, 15-300 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 696).  In Fiji, "found from near sea level to an elevation of 700 m, cultivated and sometimes abundantly naturalized along roadsides, on river banks, and in forests"  (Smith, 1985; p. 79).  In Papua New Guinea, "especially the Markham area, Samanea has overgrown large areas of pasture rendering them useless.  Along river floodplains this tree grows massively and shades out many natives.  Samanea is weedy mainly in two seasonally dry areas, namely the Markham Valley near Lae and in the Laloki floodplains near Port Moresby, which is also a rainshadow area. In these two areas, raintrees are a problem. At Erap in the Markham Valley, large acres of grazing land was made useless for grazing." (Warea Orapa, communication to Pestnet listserver). In New Caledonia, "largement planté comme arbre d'ombrage et naturalisé, surtout en forêts-galeries dégradées" (MacKee, 1994; p. 79).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Neotropics from Mexico to Peru and Brazil (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 696).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 24)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 88)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 94)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 99)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7865A (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24287)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 96)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Bryan 574
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 155702)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 614854)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Smith 8251
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 155703)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: DA 12957, Berry 29, DF 1025, DF 1026
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: DA 9762, DA 16325 (DF 1280), Gillespie 4378, DF 1066, DF 1067, Greenwood 792, Berry 55, DA 1318
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 32864)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 155704)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40946)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 54)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 160)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 130
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 160)
Vouchers cited: Moore 651, BRY 26084
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 54)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 160)
Voucher cited: Grant 4316
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9195 (PAP)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 304)
Voucher cited: Stone 4008 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 155699)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 155701)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 696)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence 7612 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 9)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & J. Kunna H40004 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H120636 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 696)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 151)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: Sarlin 330, MacKee 8234, MacKee 34516, MacKee 42383
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 122-123)
Vouchers cited: CHR 169773, CHR 168724
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 89)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 94)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 155700)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3120)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 91)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 205)
Introduced shade tree.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Orapa, Warea (year unknown)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 242)
Introduced about 1860, now widely planted as a shade tree, in places spontaneous.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10801 (PAP). "Ornementale rare".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 642811)
Taxon name on voucher: Albizia saman
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417414)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417715)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 106)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 56)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 155705)
Taxon name on voucher: Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 68)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-13)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080611-03
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hainan, Yunnan
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 131)
As Albizia saman (Jacq.) F. Muell. Ornamental, timber.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) uncertain if native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 12)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 126)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 6)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 34)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 4, 7)
As Pithecellobium saman
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 22)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Comments:  Invasive on Fiji, where it is reported to contribute 85% of the total volume of woody biomass per hectare in low-lying alluvial sites and river valleys in the drier zones of the major islands (personal communication, Wilco Liebregts, Ecoconsult Pacific).

Widely planted but not appear to be a serious problem in Micronesia (Space & Falanruw, 1999).

Mostly cultivated trees seen on Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002), Niue (Space & Flynn, 2000), Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2002) and Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Additional information:
Information on this species from "Silvics of North American", USDA Agriculture Handbook 654.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.
Fact sheet from "Common forest trees of Hawaii" (PDF format).
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF format).

Additional online information about Samanea saman is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Samanea saman as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Samanea saman may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Australian Biological Resources Study. 2013. Flora of Australia Online. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1981. Voucher specimen #BNM3120(Timberlake, J. 3120).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 155699 (Thompson, J.B. 382).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1924. Voucher specimen #BISH 155702 (Bryan Jr, E.H. 574).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 155704 (Gillespie, J.W. 4378).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 614854 (St.John, H. 19765).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 155700 (Fosberg, F.R. 32335).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 155703 (Smith, A.C. 8251).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 155705 (Hotta, M. 5606).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1962. Voucher specimen #BISH 155701 (Stone, B.C.M. 4008).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 32864 (Koroiveibau, D. 15878).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417414 (Whistler, W.A. W 1134).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1973. Voucher specimen #BISH 417715 (Whistler, W.A. W 692).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 642811 (Florence 10801).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Falanruw, Marjorie C./Maka, Jean E./Cole, Thomas G./Whitesell, Craig D. 1990. Common and scientific names of trees and shrubs of Mariana, Caroline, and Marshall Islands. Pac. SW Forest and Range Expt. Stn. Resource Bulletin PSW-67. 91 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 37 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Little, Elbert L./Skolmen, Roger G. 1989. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). USDA Agriculture Handbook 679. Washington, D.C. 377 pp. + plates.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. 1995. Contributions to the flora of Hawai‘i. III. New additions, range extensions, and rediscoveries of flowering plants. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1994. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 41:19-58.

Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. Online database.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

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Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. 2002. New plant records from the main Hawaiian Islands. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Eldredge, Lucius G., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2000. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 69:1-14.

Orapa, Warea. 0. Warea Orapa, pers. com.

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Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 12 APR 2013.