Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Salix babylonica
L., Salicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chui liu

English: Babylon weeping willow, weeping willow

French: saule de Babylone, saule pleureur

Spanish: sauce, sauce de Babilonia, sauce llorón

Tongan: hakoloa‘ani, uilow

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large spreading tree to c. 30 m high; bark fissured, grey.  Smaller branches, branchlets and shoots long, slender, pendulous.  Shoots green or brownish green, rather brittle.  Shoots and leaves with appressed hairs, soon glabrous.  Buds very small, soon glabrous.  Petiole 5-8 mm long.  Lamina 6-13 x 1-2 cm, narrow-lanceolate, glaucescent or glaucous below, slightly shining above, rather remotely serrulate; apex long-acuminate.  Leaves subtending catkins generally c. 3 x c. 0.8-1 cm; apex acute or short-acuminate.  Stipules on long shoots with curved apices.  Catkins female, appearing with an after leaves on short leafy shoots, 1.5-3 cm long, narrow-cylindric, often curved; rachis villous.  Bracts 2-2.5 mm long, narrow-triangular or lanceolate-oblong, green; margin not incurved; apex acute.  Gland 1, 0.5-0.6 mm diameter, broadly rectangular or almost square, sometimes 2-lobed.  Ovary sessile, glabrous" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1166).

Habitat/ecology:  "Heath- and shrubland, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands.  This is a common tree of riparian habitats...and forms dense thickets along streams that shade out native riparian species and affect the invertebrate fauna of wetlands and rivers by changing and reducing the species composition and richness.  Little is known on the ecology of this tree"  (Weber, 2003; p. 378).

In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated...near sea level and infrequently naturalized at elevations up to 150 m on sand and shingle in the open at edges of creeks"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 713-714).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  The plant grows in water or it has its roots within a permanent water course, this corresponds to marshes, bogs, water courses, lake and river shores.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "The tree spreads mainly vegetatively by root sprouts"  (Weber, 2003; p. 378).

Native range:  Asia; widespread in cultivation (Smith, 1981; pp. 713-714).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 496, 542, 557)
Voucher cited: Danton I(5/187)1536. "En RC, se encuentra en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista y también en la Bahia El Pangal. Al igual que los otros sauces, se desqueja fácilmente".
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 496, 542, 557)
Voucher cited: Danton G(1334)1098. "En RC, se encuentra en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista y también en la Bahia El Pangal. Al igual que los otros sauces, se desqueja fácilmente".
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 713-714)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 1191
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 257)
Voucher cited: N. Kraus 1659
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 257)
Voucher cited: Moore 206
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 257)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63557
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 136)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2861 (PAP)
Ornementale peu commune à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 30)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 126)
Voucher cited: MacKee 18114
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 184)
Voucher cited: CHR 168693
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 713-714)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: Hürlimann 300, Yuncker 15207
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 108)
Ornamental.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1166)
"Moist places near still or flowing water".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 76)
Cultivated only
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)

Comments:  Sykes (1970; p. 184) found a single tree growing on Niue. Not noted in later surveys.


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This page was created on 16 FEB 2004 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.