Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sagittaria sagittifolia
L., Alismataceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Medium-high risk (Go to the risk assessment) (PDF format).

Common name(s): [more details]

English: arrowhead, Chinese arrowhead, Old World arrowhead, swamp-potato, swan-potato

French: flèche d'eau, sagittaire à feuilles en flèche

Japanese: kuwai

Spanish: cola de golondrina, flecha de agua, saeta de agua

Habit:  herb

Description:  Perennial rhizomatous herbs; stems erect.  Juvenile leaves submerged, linear, 10-250 cm long, 0.3-3 cm wide; following leaves floating; adult leaves mostly aerial with a blade very variable in size and form, from ovate to sagittate; petiole up to 60 cm long. Inflorescence a simple raceme with several few-flowered whorls of flowers.  Bracts lanceolate, 0.3-1.5 cm long.  Flowers actinomorphic, pedicels of female flowers 0.5-1.5 cm long, longer and thinner on male flowers.  Perianth composed of 6 segments in two whorls.  Sepals 3, free, green, 4-7 mm long; petals 3, free, 10-15 mm long, white with or without a purple spot; filaments 1-2 mm long, glabrous, linear; anthers purple.  Fruit a globose aggregate, 1-2 cm wide; fruitlets 4-6 mm long, with a short apical beak  (Hafliger, 1982; p. 85).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "rooting in mud near sea level and also up to 100 m elevation, in swamps, marshes, and along rivers in deltas, where it is in standing water at high tide and uncovered at low tide" (Smith, 1979; p. 124).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Temperate Europe and Asia. Subsp. leucopetala (Miq.) Hartog is found in southeast Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 124)
Subsp. leucopetala (Miq.) Hartog; vouchers cited: DA 3993, Vaughan 3151, Tothill (coll. MacDaniels) 197, MacDaniels 1020, DA 16635
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39564)
Taxon name on voucher: Sagittaria sagittifolia
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 302)
Voucher cited: D. Bare 70
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 302)
Vouchers cited: Moore 459, BRY 26648
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Subsp. leucopetala (Miq.) Hartog
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 25)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 317)
China
China
Hong Kong native
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 291)
subsp. leucopetala (Miq.) Hartog. Cultivated. In ponds, paddy fields and marshes.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 76)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 317)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 11 MAR 2007 and was last updated on 4 SEP 2011.