Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Sacciolepis indica
(L.) Chase, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: nang ying cao

English: glenwood grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annuals or perennials, more or less weakly rhizomatous; culms tufted, decumbent, branching from base, 15-50 cm long, slender, glabrous.  Leaves usually near base of culm; sheaths glabrous, shorter than internodes; ligule membranous, 0.1-0.3 mm long; blades 3-10 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, glabrous.  Inflorescences 1.5-7 cm long, usually less than 5 mm in diameter, often tinged purple, peduncle slender, 10-23 cm long, often constituting more than " the height of the plant; spikelets pedicellate, strongly imbricate and concealing the rachis; first glume ovate, boat-shaped, 1.1-1.5 mm long, 5-nerved, second glume boat-shaped, 2.5-2.8 mm long, 7-nerved, apex blunt; first floret sterile, biconvex, 2.5-2.8 mm long, glumes striate, first lemma similar to glumes, saccate at base, 7-9-nerved, concealing a narrow, stiff palea ca. 1 mm long; second floret fertile, second lemma chartaceous, narrowly ovate, ca. 1.5 mm long, smooth, lustrous, nerves obscure, apex acute; palea nearly as long as lemma.  Caryopsis brown, ovoid, slightly compressed, ca. 1 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1589).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Swamps and stagnant water, occurring in dense swards.  A weed of drainage channels and dams."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 81-82).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in open, wet areas such as grasslands, crests of ridges, openings in wet forest, and along trails (15-) 150-1,700 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1589); "infests openings and trails in wet forests, displacing low-growing natives"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In Fiji, "moderately common...from sea level to about 1,000 m. on open hillsides, sand and gravel banks in stream beds, in weedy thickets along roadsides and trails, and as a weed of cultivation and waste places"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 360-361). In New Caledonia, "sans valeur fourragère évidente. Maintenant répandu sur la Grande-Terre, bien intégré à la végétation naturelle en lieux humides, lisières de forêts et même à l'intérieur de forêts peu dégradées" (MacKee, 1994; p. 62).

Propagation:  Seed, commonly dispersed by sticking to animal fur. Seed and rhizome fragments also dispersed by water (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 81-82).

Native range:  Tropical Asia, Australia and into Polynesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1993) (voucher ID: PTBG 27463)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 57-58)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: N.S. Tangalin 1158 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 432322)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 57-58)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432323)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 360-361)
Voucher cited: DA 5024
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 360-361)
Vouchers cited: DA 10374, Smith 5645, DA 8636, DA 8660, Smith 8768, DA 9099, DA 7797, DA 8697, DA 9608, Smith 7009, DA 8475, DA 1172, DA 8602
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 31605)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 31606)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 126731)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 699982)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 699983)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands probably native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40143)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Toutain 4248 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42487)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island native
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 343)
Vouchers cited: BRY 26071, BRY 26505
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 106)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3602 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492167)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island native
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 343)
Voucher cited: BRY 26537
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 106)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2569 (PAP), J. Florence 8782 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 607524)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38275)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6241 (PAP), J. Florence 6389 (PAP), J. Florence 6582 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 493259)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 224)
Voucher cited: Stone 4968-A (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 57-58)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: C. Imada, H. Oppenheimer, J.S. Meidell & C. Gemmill 98-6 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
Voucher cited: Lyon s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1589)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Répandue sur la Grande-Terre, bien intégrée à la végétation naturelle en lieux humides, lisière de forêts et même à l'intérieur de forêt peu dégradées.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Guillaumin & Baumann 10198
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 652080)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 13099)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1983) (voucher ID: PTBG 39261)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 176)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 580)
"Rough pasture".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 57-58)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Voucher: Lorence 9836 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432321)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 589080)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 689480)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3091)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3104)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 130)
Taxon name on voucher: Sacciolepis indica
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 57-58)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 168)
Throughout New Guinea from low altitudes to 8,000 ft., but most common from 5,000 to 6,000 ft.; grassland, abandoned gardens, roadsides.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 64)
Common in open wet grasslands at low and medium altitudes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island probably native
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 71)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island probably native
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2129
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island probably native
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 68)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 346)
On margins of paddy fields, in forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 580)
"damp ground near roadsides".
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 76)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island uncertain if native
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant (indigène?)"
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)

Comments:  Should not be introduced where not native.

Control: 

Chemical: "Probably sensitive to glyphosate"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.