Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rumex crispus
L., Polygonaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Reject, score: 26 (Go to the risk assessment (U.S. (Florida)))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhou ye suan mo

English: curled dock, curly dock, dock, sour dock, yellow dock

French: herbe patience, oseille, oseille crépu, patience, patience crépu, reguette, rumex crépu

Japanese: nagaba-gishi-gishi

Spanish: acedera crespa, acelgas, gualtata, lengua de caballo, lengua de vaca, romaza, romaza crespa, vinagrillo

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect, usually stout perennial herbs; stems usually solitary, 6-15 dm long, striate, glabrous to sparsely papillose-pilose. Leaves lanceolate or narrowly oblong-lanceolate, (12-) 16-60 cm long, 0.8-6 cm wide, basal ones wider, glabrous to papillose, margins strongly undulate, crisped, apex acuminate or obtuse, base cuneate to rounded, petioles 2-30 cm long.  Flowers usually perfect, usually more than 15 in open verticils, these more or less widely spaced in leafy, racemose or 1-2-branched, narrow, paniculate inflorescences, pedicels slender, recurved; outer tepals 1.2-1.5 mm long, the valves 1.8-2.2 mm long, enlarging to 3-5.5 mm long in fruit, margins subentire to denticulate or crenulate, the faces of 1 or all of the valves with a conspicuous pale brown tubercle, the tubercles variable, 1-2 mm long, the largest one extending at least " as long as the valve.  Nuts dark brown, ca. 2.2 mm long, the surface glossy"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1067, 1888).

Habitat/ecology:  "A troublesome world weed in both arable lands and pastures, but it is also an early colonizer of many disturbed areas both in lowland and upland.  It is found on roadsides and neglected lands and in lawns and home gardens; occasional plants are found in many different types of habitats and plant communities.  It is present on almost all soil types but less often on peat and rarely on acid soils. It tends to avoid equatorial areas, but it is a weed in the valleys and high places in those regions" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 403).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized primarily in disturbed areas such as along roadsides and near developed area, 6-1,850 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1067).  In Fiji, "an occasional weedy herb in gardens and along roadsides near sea level" (Smith, 1981; pp. 305-306). In New Guinea, "a troublesome weed of cultivation and grazing land, well-known in temperate countries" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 141); "a weed of pastures and cultivation; in Papuasia at altitudes of c. 1700 m"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 248). In New Zealand, "widespread and often abundant weed in all but montane regions. Mostly damp places such as lakesides, river beds, ditches, swamps, moist dune slacks near the coast, and wet pastures, sometimes drier ground in waste places, pastures and other modified habitats" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 983).

Propagation:  Seed. "The seeds will pass through the digestive tracts of birds and cattle without being harmed.  The fruits...are lightweight and may be moved long distances by wind.  They are also spread by moving in water and by adhering with mud to the clothes of man, his machinery, and the fur, feathers, and feet of animals" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 405).

Native range:  Europe.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"An introduced weed". Voucher cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5514 (MEL)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 305-306)
Voucher cited: DA L.16742
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 338-339)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6287 (PAP), N. Hallé 7389 (PAP)
Naturalisée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1067)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1067, 1888)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1067, 1888)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Mosyakin, Sergei/Wagner, Warren L. (1998) (pp. 39-44)
subsp. fauriei (Rech.) Mosyakin & W.L. Wagner; vouchers cited: G.C. Munro 284 (BISH), G.C. Munro 309 (BISH), G.C. Munro 502 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1067, 1888)
Voucher cited: Forbes 265.M (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1067, 1888)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Mosyakin, Sergei/Wagner, Warren L. (1998) (pp. 39-44)
subsp. fauriei (Rech.) Mosyakin & W.L. Wagner; voucher cited: G. Staples & A. Kadowaki 892 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 96)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 117)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 15654, Schmid 751 (NOU), MacKee 15841, MacKee 16021
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 141)
Eastern highlands dist., at about 1700 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 248)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 307)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 121)
In Benguet a recent introduction, but sparingly naturalized, altitude 1,400 to 2,200 m.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 307)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 404)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 404)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 404)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 314)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 404)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 404, 407)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 307)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 404)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 983)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 404)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé/±envahissant"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 314)

Control: 

Physical:  "Single plants or small groups can be dug out or deeply hoed.  To prevent regrowth, the roots must be severed at least 20 cm below the soil surface".

Chemical:  "Effective herbicides include glyphosate, dicamba, picloram, or triclopyr"  (Weber, 2003; p. 376).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 6 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2010.