Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Ruellia blechum
L., Acanthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Barleria pyramidata Lam.; Blechum brownei Juss.; Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: yerbas babui, yetbas babney, yetbas babui, zetbas babui

Chuukese: ererion, fetinin namocels, merangarang, namochuk

English: blackweed, Browne's blechum, green shrimp plant, John bush

Other: aurowra, lasaga, ligakoka

Samoan: vao uli

Satawalese: atait, rud aner re tiwai

Spanish: sornia, yerba de papagallo

Yapese: gacel, malai, melai

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect or ascending, mostly less than 50 cm tall, branched; leaves ovate, 2-7 cm long, acute, obtuse or rounded at base, acute at apex, petioles short; spikes dense, squarish because of the tetrastichous bracts, 3-6 cm long, bracts ovate, foliaceous, strigose, ciliate, 1-1.5 cm long, greenish or whitish; corolla white or pale violet, scarcely longer than bract; capsule shortly oblong, puberulent, about 6 cm long" (Stone, 1970; p. 533).

Habitat/ecology:  Common weed of roadsides, fields and disturbed areas from sea level to 2700 feet elevation.  In Fiji, "naturalized and sometimes locally frequent in settlements, gardens, pastures, and waste places, and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; pp. 121-122). "Common in flat, open sunny places" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 260-262). Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 267). In Guam, "usually in lawns or waste ground" (Stone, 1970; p. 533).

Propagation:  Seed and rooting from lower leaf nodes. (Whistler, 1983; p. 17).

Native range:  Mexico to Northern South America (McMullen, 1999; p. 267).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Anon. (1988)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 48579)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia blechum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31423 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 63)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31672 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L), Falanruw 1887 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1616 (US), Falanruw 1702 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58802
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2268 (US), Falanruw 2258 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1845 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Guguan Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-58937
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Maug Island native
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59149
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 26456)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia blechum
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 40)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1771 (US), Evans 2342 (US, BISH, Fo, NY), Kanehira 2167 (FU)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 26455)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia blechum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Wolf Island
Wolf Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
forma puberulum
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Murilo (Mwiriné) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nama Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Pis Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
invasive
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 59)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 59 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Udot Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 6)
Voucher: BMW 5758 (BISH, AD)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7870 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21127)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia blechum Juss.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Kapingamarangi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 102)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2779 (US), Kanehira 864 (BISH, NY), Takamatsu 763 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 65)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 26398 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2779 (BISH), S. Ishikawa 450 (BISH), R. Kanehita 864 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 8096 (MO, NY, PTBG, US), M. Takamatsu 763 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28095)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia blechum Juss.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island native
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46684 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46921 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 1112)
Taxon name on voucher: Blechum
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 121-122)
Voucher cited: DA 8946
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 121-122)
Vouchers cited: DA 10204, Garnock-Jones 1108
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 121-122)
Vouchers cited: DA 9574, DA 11750, DA 9345, DA 9376, DA 4009, DA 11073, DA 10935, DA 11428
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 533)
Voucher cited: Stone 4711 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Matayoshi s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 170)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Voucher: Imada 2003-72 (BISH 697687)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Presence not verified.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 35)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39472 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 5)
"Rare; small patch behind Bikini Projects camp, near wetland area".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 57)
Naturalized, appears to be spreading.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Vander Velde 0516200914, Vander Velde 0518200907
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2009) (voucher ID: PTBG 49751)
Taxon name on voucher: Ruellia blechum
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Thaman & Manner 60 (SUVA)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Salsedo 128 (US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Voucher: Lorence 9824 (PTBG, BNM)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 118)
Taxon name on voucher: Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 255)
As Blechum brownei f. puberulum Leonard
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 19)
f. puberulum Leonard, voucher cited: Lorence 8183 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 62)
Voucher: Lorence 9747 (PTBG, BISH, BNM, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 39)
Taxon name on voucher: Blechum pyramidatum
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L. (1993) (p. 27)
Voucher cited: Salsedo 399 (US)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 471)
In waste places, open thickets, on and about old walls, etc., in and about towns at low altitudes; usually common.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 58)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 31)
Voucher specimen in BISH not found by Wester.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 471)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Quite prevalent along roadsides and forest tracks on Kosrae (Jim Space, pers. com.).


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This page was created on 10 NOV 2003 and was last updated on 25 MAR 2012.