Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rubus ulmifolius
Schott, Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: elm-leaf blackberry

Spanish: mora, zarzamora

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Scrambling shrub; primocanes low-arching and interlacing, distinctly whitish pruinose, becoming reddish, ± sharply angled and ± flat between, with few subsessile glands, and usually sparsely to moderately clothed in mostly stellate hairs, rarely finally glabrous; armature of few to many stout, erect to slightly falcate prickles on angles. Young stems with stellate tomentum, and scattered simple hairs and subsessile glands. Leaflets 5, glabrous or almost glabrous on upper surface, pilose on veins and with dense whitish tomentum between on lower surface, 1-2-serrate; terminal leaflet lamina oblong to narrow-obovate, acuminate, 30-80 x 20-50-(60) mm, with petiolule 1/3-2/5 length of lamina. Stipules linear. Inflorescence densely hairy with subsessile glands. Sepals acuminate, tomentose and with very few, longer, simple hairs, usually without but sometimes with prickles. Petals rounded, strongly crinkled, bright pink. Anthers glabrous" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1131).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands.  A variable species with several cultivars.  It spreads both by seeds and by vegetative growth.  The shrub grows in dense patches that displace native vegetation and prevent regeneration of shrubs and trees due to the shading effect"  (Weber, 2003; p. 373).

In New Zealand, "roadsides, streamsides, waste places, neglected pasture, hillsides, margins of forest and scrub" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 1131).  In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter; humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).  Some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light; in shadow, steep slopes facing south or a vegetation cover which filters 40-80% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "Seeds are dispersed by birds.  Stems root freely at the tips, and pieces of stems are carried by streatms to form new infestations"  (Weber, 2003; p. 373).

Native range:  Africa, Europe; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 557)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Collected in survey, herbarium record pending.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1131)
"Roadsides, streamsides, waste places, neglected pasture, hillsides, margins of forest and scrub".

Comments:  Subject of an eradication program in the Galápagos Islands (Chris Buddenhagen, pers. com.)

Control:  See "Blackberry control manual: management and control options for blackberry (Rubus spp.) in Australia"  (Victoria Dept. Prim. Ind., 2009).


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This page was created on 17 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 12 MAR 2012.