Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Roystonea oleracea
(N. Jacquin) O. F. Cook, Arecaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: -3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Areca oleracea Jacq.; Roystonea venezuelana L.H. Bailey

Common name(s): [more details]

English: cabbage palm, Caribbean royal palm, imperial palm, royal palm, South American royal palm

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trunk gray, to 40 m tall , 46-66 cm in diameter.  Leaves 20-22, lowest leaves held at or above horizontal; crowns haft ca. 2 m long; petiole 60-100 cm long, rachis 4-4.6 m long; middle segments 65-94 cm long and 3-4.9 cm wide. Inflorescence ca. 1.4 m long and 0.7 m wide; prophyll 46.5-53 cm long and 8.8-16 cm wide; peduncular bract ca. 1.5 m long, widest above 23 the middle, apex caudate; rachillae 16-30 cm long and 1.5-2.8 mm in diameter. Staminate flowers white; sepals triangular, 1.4-1.7 mm long and 1.6-2.6 mm wide; petals elliptical to ovate, 3-4.8 mm long and 1.4-2.7 mm wide; stamens 6-8, 4.4-8.8 mm long; filaments awl-shaped, 3-6.9 mm long; anthers 3.5-4.7 mm long, apices recurved; pistillode minute. Pistillate flowers white, 2.5-4.5 per cm; sepals reniform, 1.5-1.8 mm long and 3.3-4.3 mm wide; petals ovate, 2.6-3.4 mm long; staminode 6-lobed, 1.8-2.5 mm long, free for 0.9-1.2 mm; gynoecium 1.8-2.9 mm long and 1.6-2.5 mm in diameter. Fruit ellipsoid, gibbous, 12.6-17.6 mm long, 8.2-10.8 mm dorsiventral thickness, and 7.6-10.4 mm wide; epicarp purplish black, stigmatic scar plain; endocarp ellipsoid, 9.8-13.7 mm long, 6.8-7.7 mm dorsiventral thickness, and 6.8-7.7 mm wide; seed ellipsoid, 7.5-10.5 mm long, 4.6-6.1 mm dorsiventral thickness, and 5.1-6.8 mm wide; raphe circular. Eophyll linear-elliptical, short- or exstipitate, weakly costate"  (Zona, 1996, in Palmweb). 

"To 100 ft. or more, trunk swollen at base, then cylindrical; leaves to 20 ft. long, ascending or spreading, forming a crown usually appearing nearly flat on lower side, pinnae in 1 plane near base and apex of leaf, but usually in 2 planes at middle of leaf in mature individuals; inflorescence with undulate rachillae; male flowers 1/4 in. long, stamens 6, filaments usually exceeding the petals and anthers much exserted; fruit oblong-ellipsoid, blackish at maturity, to 3/4 in. long, 3/8 in in diameter" (Bailey & Bailey, 1976; p. 984).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Barbados; Dominica; Guadeloupe; Martinique; Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Colombia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 87-88)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 38)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 409)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 112)
Voucher cited: MacKee 39823
Spontané
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (pp. 87-88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 8)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
As Roystonea venezuelana. Potential invader.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 296)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 75)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 76)
Locally naturalized.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Lavergne, Christophe/Hodel, Donald R. (2008) (p. 76)

Comments:  Reported to be a potential invader in the Solomon Islands (Wairiu & Wagatora, 2002). Reported to be invasive in French Guinea (Rejmánek, 1996).


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This page was created on 17 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2013.