Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rotala indica
(Willd.) Koehne, Lythraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Peplis indica Willd.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: jie jie cai

English: Indian toothcup

Habit:  aquatic herb

Description:  "Herbs, annual, terrestrial or amphibious, to ca. 40 cm. Stem creeping and branched at base, ascending, or erect, terete to weakly 4-angled. Leaves decussate, obovate-elliptic or obovate-oblong, 5-17 x 3-8 mm, base cuneate, margin translucent to opaque, white cartilaginous, apex obtuse. Bracts like foliage leaves or distinctly smaller on axillary spikes. Flowers in axillary spikes or sessile in bracts on main stem; bracteoles linear, reaching sepals or longer. Floral tube 4-merous, pink-red at anthesis, narrowly to broadly campanulate, 1.5-2.5 mm, 4-angled; sepals 4, lanceolate-deltate; epicalyx absent. Petals 4, pink, minute to ca. 1/2 as long as sepals. Stamens 4; anthers reaching sinus of sepals. Ovary ellipsoidal; style ca. 1/2 as long as ovary, slightly exserted. Capsule ellipsoidal, ca. 1 mm in diameter, slightly exserted, 2-valved. Seeds ca. 0.4 mm"  (Flora of China online).

"Terrestrial or aquatic annual herbStems quadrangular, erect or creeping, 10-40 cm long.  Leaves opposite, oblong to ovate, 4-15 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, sessile or shortly petiolate.  Flowers axillary, solitary or in short dense spikes, subtended by linear leafy bracts.  Calyx 2-3 mm long, tubular with 4 triangular lobes.  Petals 4, pinkish or white, tiny and inconspicuous.  Stamens 2-6, attached deep in calyx tube.  Fruit a 2-valved elliptic capsule, 1.5 mm - 0.8 mm, containing numerous tiny, pear-shaped seeds."  (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 51-52).

Habitat/ecology:  In China (native), "wet places, paddy fields" (Flora of China online).  "Wet areas such as rice fields, river banks, ditches, and waterlogged grasslands. 0-1000 m altitude." (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 51-52).

Propagation:  "Seeds and plant fragments dispersed by water and externally attached to waterbirds" (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 51-52).

Native range:  Asia (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 51-52).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (p. 52)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 134)
A rice-paddy weed and in open damp waste places at low and medium altitudes.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (p. 52)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 311)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 160)
In paddy fields and wet places.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 311)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 311)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (p. 52)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 311)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (p. 52)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, B. M./Mitchell, A. A. (1998) (p. 52)

Comments:  "Serious weed of rice in Afghanistan, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan. Troublesome in the USA." (Waterhouse & Mitchell, 1998; pp. 51-52).


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This page was created on 14 MAR 2005 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2012.