Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rorippa indica
(L.) Hiern, Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: han cai

English: India fieldcress, variableleaf yellowcress, yellow cress

Fijian: sewathi

French: rorippa d'Inde

Spanish: berro de chanco

Habit:  herb

Description:  Perennial herb with short rhizomes.  Stem erect or sometimes ascending, usually branching below, angled.  Basal and lower leaves petiolate, elliptical to lanceolate-oblong, lyrate-pinnatifid or irregularly dentate-serrate, up to 15 cm long and 4 cm wide; upper leaves shortly petiolate or sessile, lanceolate, irregularly dentate, acute, base sometimes auriculate.  Inflorescence an ebracteate corymb, elongating later.  Flowers approximately 3-5 mm in diameter, bright yellow; pedicel 2-3 mm long, perianth double, segments free; sepals 2-3 mm long, elliptical-oblong, ± spreading; petals 3-4 mm long, usually longer than sepals, bright yellow, spatulate; stamens 6, carpels 2, united; ovary cylindrical, style short and thickened, stigma capitate, 0.5-1 mm long.  Fruit a siliqua (10-) 15-25 cm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, narrowly linear, slightly curved; style thick and short, many-seeded; fruiting pedicel 2-8 mm long, slender.  Seeds 0.6-0.7 mm long, ± cordate, ovate or oblong, yellowish-brown, granular, flattened (adapted from Hafliger & Wolf, 1988; p. 193).

"Herbs annual, (6-)20-60(-75) cm tall, glabrous or rarely sparsely pubescent. Stems often branched basally and apically. Basal leaves withered by flowering. Lower and middle cauline leaves auriculate or not; petiole absent or 1-4 cm; leaf blade lyrate-pinnatipartite or undivided, obovate, oblong, or lanceolate, (2.5-)3.5-12(-16) x (0.8-)1.5-4(-5) cm, margin entire, irregularly crenate, or serrate, apex obtuse or subacute; terminal lobe oblong, elliptic, or oblong-lanceolate, to 10 x 5 cm; lateral lobes absent or 1-5(or 6) on each side of midvein. Uppermost leaves usually sessile, auriculate or not; leaf blade lanceolate or oblong, margin entire, denticulate, or serrulate, apex acute or acuminate. Racemes ebracteate. Fruiting pedicels slender, ascending, divaricate, or rarely slightly reflexed, straight, (2-)3-10(-15) mm. Sepals often green or pinkish, ascending, oblong-ovate, 2-3 x 0.8-1.5 mm, margin membranous. Petals yellow, obovate or spatulate, (2.5-)3-4(-4.5) x 1-1.5 mm, rarely absent. Filaments 1.5-3 mm; anthers oblong, 0.5-0.8 mm. Ovules (60-)70-110 per ovary. Fruit linear, (0.7-)1-2.4(-3) cm x 1-1.5(-2) mm, often curved upward; valves thin papery, not veined; style (0.5-)1-1.5(-2) mm, slender, narrower than fruit. Seeds reddish brown, ovate or ovate-orbicular, 0.5-0.9 x 0.4-0.6 mm, foveolate, biseriate or nearly so"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "an occasional weed in waste places from near sea level to about 400 m" (Smith, 1981; p. 711).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Indian subcontinent and eastern Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 711)
Var. apetala (L.) Hochr., voucher cited: DA 3495
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 711)
Var. apetala (L.) Hochr., vouchers cited: DA 2459, DA 7420
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 193)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands probably introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 208)
In and about towns along drains, ditches, etc., waste places, along streams, etc, in the more or less settled areas.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, field margins, gardens, river banks; near sea level to 3200 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 111-112)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 246)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 4 MAR 2007 and was last updated on 11 DEC 2010.