Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Richardia scabra
L., Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Richardsonia scabra (L.) A. St.-Hil.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: rough Mexican clover

Habit:  herb

Description:  "The root is a taproot and the stem is branched, erect, fleshy, very hairy and 20 to 50 centimeters tall.  The leaves are also pubescent and are sessile, opposite, entire, oblong or elliptical to lanceolate or ovate, 2 to 4 centimeters long and 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide.  The inflorescence is a white flower-head subtended by four leaf bracts, two longer than the others.  The flowers are perfect and occur in terminal clusters.  The calyx is a small whorl consisting of 5 to 6 pointed lobes.  The fruit is a capsule divided into 3 to 4 parts and produces flat, obovate seeds"  (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 265).

"Richardia brasiliensis has mericarps that are adaxially broadly and openly concave with a slim median keel, whereas those of Richardia scabra are adaxially closed to a narrow groove or sulcus.  These 2 species are otherwise similar in morphology"  (Lorence et al., 1995; pp. 50-51).

Habitat/ecology:  "Annual herb common in cultivated fields, perennial crops, waste areas, roadsides and ditchbanks"  (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 265).

Propagation:  Seed (Cardenas et al., 1972; p. 265).

Native range:  United States, Mexico, Central and South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Pratt, Linda W./Bio, Leali‘i F. (2012) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: L.W. Pratt 3556 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (pp. 50-51)
Vouchers cited: M. Kiehn & T. Flynn MK-900920-1/1 (PTBG, US, WU), M. Kiehn & T.Flynn MK-900917-2/1 (PTBG, WU), T. Flynn 1245 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 23)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H100045 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. (2008) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: East Maui: W. L. Wagner & S. Mill 4739 (BISH), F. Starr & K. Martz 010726-3 (BISH). West Maui: H. Oppenheimer H30706 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. (2008) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40404 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. (2008) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & L. Crago 2004-27 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 309)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 270)
On grassland or in wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 26 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 22 DEC 2012.