Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rhizophora mangle
L., Rhizophoraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: American mangrove, mangrove, red mangrove

Spanish: mangle, mangle colorado, mangle rojo

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large shrubs or trees up to ca. 10 m tall; stems with conspicuous stilt roots, often forming impenetrable thickets.  Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 5-15 cm long, (2.5-) 3.5-7 cm wide, midrib prominent, glabrous, apex obtuse to rounded, base cuneate, petioles 1-2.5 cm long.  Flowers 2-3 in simple cymes, peduncles 30-40 mm long, pedicels 4-10 mm long, bracteoles scale-like; calyx yellow, fleshy, 10-15 mm long, the lobes lanceolate, involute, keeled within, becoming recurved at maturity; petals pale yellow, linear-lanceolate, 8-10 mm long, involute above middle, villous within and along margins; stamens 8, caducous.  Fruit greenish brown, 1-celled, leathery, pendent, 2-3 cm long, the surface slightly roughened.  Seed 1, germinating in the persistent fruit with the fusiform-clavate hypocotyl protruding before detachment from the plant, hypocotyl up to 25 cm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1099-1100).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai&145;i, "naturalized in saltwater marshes"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1100).

Propagation:  Propagules

Native range:  "Florida, the West Indies and South America"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1100).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 8)
West Maui. Voucher cited: C. Imada, K. Evans & J. Palma 98-27 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 22)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110129 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
North Carolina, South Carolina
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 25 OCT 2010 and was last updated on 31 MAY 2011.