Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Rhizophora mangle
L., Rhizophoraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: American mangrove, mangrove, red mangrove

Spanish: mangle, mangle colorado, mangle rojo

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large shrubs or trees up to ca. 10 m tall; stems with conspicuous stilt roots, often forming impenetrable thickets.  Leaves coriaceous, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 5-15 cm long, (2.5-) 3.5-7 cm wide, midrib prominent, glabrous, apex obtuse to rounded, base cuneate, petioles 1-2.5 cm long.  Flowers 2-3 in simple cymes, peduncles 30-40 mm long, pedicels 4-10 mm long, bracteoles scale-like; calyx yellow, fleshy, 10-15 mm long, the lobes lanceolate, involute, keeled within, becoming recurved at maturity; petals pale yellow, linear-lanceolate, 8-10 mm long, involute above middle, villous within and along margins; stamens 8, caducous.  Fruit greenish brown, 1-celled, leathery, pendent, 2-3 cm long, the surface slightly roughened.  Seed 1, germinating in the persistent fruit with the fusiform-clavate hypocotyl protruding before detachment from the plant, hypocotyl up to 25 cm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1099-1100).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai&145;i, "naturalized in saltwater marshes"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1100).

Propagation:  Propagules

Native range:  "Florida, the West Indies and South America"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1100).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 8)
West Maui. Voucher cited: C. Imada, K. Evans & J. Palma 98-27 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 22)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110129 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1100)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
North Carolina, South Carolina
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 25 OCT 2010 and was last updated on 31 MAY 2011.