Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Raphanus raphanistrum
L., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ye luo bo

English: jointed charlock, jointed radish, pointer charlock, runch, white charlock, wild radish

French: radis ravenelle, raifort sauvage, ravenelle, ravenelle sauvage

Japanese: hamadaikon

Spanish: citró, erviana, flor de nabo, jaramado, jaramago blanco, lobrastos, mostaza, nabo cimarron, rabancá, rabanilla, rabanillo blanco, rabaniza, rábano, rábano morado, rábano silvestre, ravenissa, taramao

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual to perennial. Taproot swollen or slender. Stems usually green, (10)-20-80-(100) cm tall. Rosette and lower stem leaves lyrate-pinnate; terminal leaflet 3-6-(10) x 3-6-(10) cm, as wide or narrower than rest of leaf; lateral leaflets in 1-8 pairs. Stem leaves simple or with 1 pair of basal lobes, orbicular to lanceolate, 1-6 cm long. Racemes 15-40-(60) cm long. Pedicels 1-2 cm long, stout at fruiting. Sepals 6-9 x 1-2 mm. Petals yellow, white, brownish, pink, or mauve, usually mauve-veined, 13-20 mm long. Silique (1)-2-8-seeded, cylindric, constricted between seeds, breaking into segments when ripe, weakly to strongly ribbed, tapering at apex, (10)-20-60-(80) x (2)-3-8-(9) mm. Seeds 1.5-3 mm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 438).

Subsp. maritimusSilique (4)-6-8 mm wide; constrictions short; segments spherical or wider than long; apical portion rarely > 2x length of top segment
Subsp. raphanistrumSilique (2)-3-4-(5) mm wide; constrictions long; segments longer than wide; apical portion (2)-3-4x length of top segment. (Webb et al., 1988; p. 438).

Habitat/ecology:  In China, "roadsides, fields, waste areas".  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall. Short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month).
Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months. Precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun. Level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Macaronesia, northern Africa, Europe, western and central Asia; widely naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 83)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Andrews, S. B. (1990) (p. 22)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 10)
Vouchers cited: H. Vollrath s.n. (BISH 43292), D. Herbst 5823 (BISH), D. Herbst 9790 (BISH), T. Herat, R. Herat & P. Higashino 805 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: W. L. Wagner et al. 5371 (BISH), W. L. Wagner et al. 5372 (BISH), T. Flynn &ammp; L. Hume 1650 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 10)
East Maui. Voucher cited: O. Degener 35834 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: N.L.H. Krauss s.n. (BISH 43318)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: N. Forbes 2286.O (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 188)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Qinghai, Sichuan
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 190)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 304)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 188)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 190)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 188)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 438)
Subsp. raphanistrum, "waste land, roadsides, disturbed soil"; subsp. maritimus (Smith) Thell., "coastal and on roadsides, waste land"
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 190)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)


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This page was created on 4 MAR 2007 and was last updated on 8 JAN 2011.