Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pyracantha angustifolia
(Franch.) C.K.Schneid., Rosaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Cotoneaster angustifolia Franch.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zhai ye huo ji

English: firethorn, yellow firethorn

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs up to 4 m tall; stems rigid, erect or sprawling, many-branched, forming a dense growth, young branches tomentose, thorns leafy. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 1.5-5 cm long, 0.5-1.6 cm wide, upper surface pubescent when young, soon glabrate and dark green, lower surface grayish tomentose, margins entire or with a few small teeth near apex, apex obtuse and mucronulate, or emarginate, base cuneate-attenuate. Flowers in dense corymbs 2-4 cm in diameter, pubescent throughout; sepals broadly deltate, 0.8-1 mm long, margins minutely denticulate; petals 8-10 mm long. Fruit bright orange to brick-red, depressed-globose, 6-8 mm in diameter" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1105).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, rocky ridges, riparian habitats.  This shrub forms dense thickets where invasive, shading out native plants and imkpeding the growth and regeneration of shrubs and trees.  It invades high-altitude grasslands in Africa.  Once established, the plant is fairly shade tolerant"  (Weber, 2003; p. 352).

Moist and wet forests and open areas, 3,000-5,000 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i. Forms dense thickets that exclude other plants and make access difficult due to its thorns. In Australia, small populations, mostly in lowland grassland/grassy woodland, dry/damp sclerophyll forests and riparian vegetation in Victoria state, naturalized in New South Wales, and along creek-banks in southeast Queensland (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 126).

Propagation:  Seed. Prolific producer of fruits that are attractive to birds.  "The shrub suckers from roots, enabling populations to expand rapidly"  (Weber, 2003; p. 352).

Native range:  Southwestern China (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Pratt, Linda W./Bio, Leali‘i F. (2012) (p. 78)
Voucher cited: L.W. Pratt & K. Bio 3520 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (pp. 9-10)
Voucher cited: J. Plews s.n. (BISH 502793)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (p. 48)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr, Starr, Chimera & Spencer 050817-01 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1999) (p. 9)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 126)
Also Victoria.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 126)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Thickets on slopes, at roadsides; 1600--3000 m".
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 184)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1099)
"Wasteland, scrub, roadsides".
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Pyracantha angustifolia and Pyracantha crenata are invasive in South Africa.
Mostly a cultivated plant of warm temperate areas but a threat at high elevations in the tropics, as in Hawai‘i.
Similar species: Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) H. L. Li, Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical:  Cut large plants and treat the stumps with herbicide. "Somewhat tolerant of triclopyr.  May require crop oil as adjuvant to enhance herbicide uptake.  Katie Cassel (Kōke‘e Museum) reports that cut-stump treatments with glyphosate or triclopyr are effective.  Application of triclopyr to frills or basal bark caused slow and erratic results.  Application of glyphosate (undiluted product) to frill was somewhat more effective than triclopyr.  HAVO staff reported control with foliar applications of triclopyr amine at 2% product in water (Chris Zimmer, HAVO)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

"1. Stump swab (all year round): glyphosate (200ml/L) or metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g /L) or triclopyr 600 EC (200ml/L).
2. Stem injection (all year round): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (50g/L mix, 5g per stem).
3. Spray (summer-autumn): metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L) + penetrant"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 JAN 2011.