Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Pterocarpus indicus
Willd., Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: zi tan

English: Amboyna wood, Andaman redwood, angsana, Burmese rosewood, Malay padauk, narra, Papua New Guinea rosewood, Philippine mahogany

Fijian: padouk

Palauan: las

Yapese: arau

Habit:  tree

Description: 

Genus:  "Trees, the stipules small or rarely foliaceous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate (very rarely unifoliolate), estipellate, the leaflets alternate to subopposite, the blades often minutely glandular beneath; inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose or paniculate, the bracts and bracteoles small, caducous; calyx turbinate to campanulate, shortly 5-lobed, the upper 2 lobes connate; petals 5, clawed, the standard usually suborbicular and with a well-developed claw, the wings obliquely obovate to spathulate, the keel petals usually shorter than wings, connate on lower side; stamens 10 (-11), the filaments all connate into a sheath split above and sometimes below, the vexillary filament sometimes free, the anthers dorsifixed, versatile, longitudinally dehiscent; ovary sessile or stipitate, the ovules 2-8, the style filiform, slightly incurved, the stigma small, terminal; fruit compressed, indehiscent, suborbicular to asymmetrical, narrowly to broadly winged, the wing curved laterally or right around to base, the seed-bearing part central, variously thickened or hardened, the seeds 1-3 (-4), reniform or oblong-reniform."  (Smith. 1985).

Species:  "Trees, 15-25 m tall. Bark grayish. Leaves 15-30 cm; stipules early caducous; petiolules 4-7 mm; rachis and petiolule glabrous; leaflets 5-7 (-11), ovate-elliptic, 5-11 x 3.5-5.5 cm, thinly papery, both surfaces glabrous, veins slender, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, base truncate, margin entire, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescence a raceme or panicle, mostly axillary, rarely terminal, 10-18 cm, puberulent. Flowers 1-1.5 cm; bracteoles 2, linear-oblong, at base of calyx. Pedicel 7-10 mm, slender. Calyx campanulate, 4-6 mm, appressed brown silky; teeth broadly triangular, ca. 1 mm, 2 larger than others. Corolla yellow; petals long clawed; standard ovate-orbicular to oblong, crisped at margin; wings oblong, ca. as long as standard; keel narrowly oblong, smaller than wings. Stamens 10, diadelphous (9+1), sheath 8-9 mm, vexillary filament free to base, filaments of varying heights; anthers versatile. Ovary shortly stipitate, oblong, 7-8 mm, densely pubescent; ovules 2; style curved; stigma minute. Legume orbicular, 4-4.5 x 3.5-4.5 cm, shortly stalked, flat, slightly hairy and reticulate opposite seed, 1-seeded, broadly winged around margin, wing to 2 cm wide. Seed brownish, reniform, narrow and oblique"  (Flora of China online).

"A tree up to 48 m high where indigenous...  The leaves have 5-11 leaflets usually up to 10 x 5 cm, ovate to lanceolate.  The fragrant flowers, about 1 cm long, have yellow or orange-yellow petals, and the suborbicular fruits, up to 6 cm in diameter with a stiffly membranaceous wing, are brown in drying"  (Smith, 1985; p. 159).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "occasionally cultivated near sea level" (Smith, 1985; p. 159).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Southeastern Asia (north to Ryukyu Islands) through Malesia and into the Pacific to the Caroline Islands and the New Hebrides, cultivated elsewhere" (Smith, 1985; p. 159).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island native
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 38)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 17)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 47564)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus Willd.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 96)
Voucher cited: M.J. Balick 4090 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 159)
Vouchers cited: DA 16432, DA 1553, DA 5513, DA 16773, L.26244
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 158)
Voucher cited: BRY 26399
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 158)
Voucher cited: BRY 26317
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 88)
Vouchers cited: Guillaumin 9849, Schmid s.n. s.loc., MacKee 34307, MacKee 43025, Imbach in MacKee 43474
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 475)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 476)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 478)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1969) (voucher ID: BNM 474)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 479)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) Willd.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 117)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2003) (voucher ID: BNM 51603)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 477)
Taxon name on voucher: Pterocarpus indicus (L.) Willd.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 241)
Generally common.
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 45)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 297)
At low and medium altitudes, in primary and in some regions in secondary forests.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Open forests on slopes, cultivated in villages and gardens".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 152)
Timber.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) native
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 73)
Casual
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Open forests on slopes, cultivated in villages and gardens".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 125)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 52)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2737
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2011)

Additional information:
Information from the World Agroforestry Centre's AgroForestryTree Database.
Information from the USDA Tropical Tree Seed Manual (PDF format).

Additional online information about Pterocarpus indicus is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Pterocarpus indicus as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Pterocarpus indicus may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM479(Cheatham 82).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1967. Voucher specimen #BNM477(Hardy, S. 28).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1968. Voucher specimen #BNM478(Emmons, B. 116).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1969. Voucher specimen #BNM474(Salsedo, Carl. A. 237).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1970. Voucher specimen #BNM475(Fisher, T. R. 102).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1970. Voucher specimen #BNM476(Fisher, T. R. 66).

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 2003. Voucher specimen #BNM51603(Kitalong, Ann AK051603).

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre. 2011. International Legume Database & Information Service. Online searchable database.

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

Merlin, M./Kigfas, A./Keene, T./Juvik, J. 1996. Giddi nge gakiiy nu Wa‘ab: Plants, People and Ecology in Yap State. Program on Environment, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawai‘i, 121 pp.

Merrill, Elmer D. 1923. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants, vol. 2 [reprint]. Bureau of Printing, Manila. 530 pp.

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2005. Voucher specimen #PTBG47564(David H. Lorence 9429).

Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

Raulerson, L. 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution 37:1-69. .

Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Smith, Albert C. 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 3. 758 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean: a report to Parks Australia. 101 pp. plus appendix.

U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. 2013. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online searchable database.

Welsh, S. L. 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. E.P.S. Inc., Orem, Utah. 420 pp.

Whistler, W. A. 2000. Tropical ornamentals: a guide. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 542 pp.

Wu, Te-lin. 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised). 384 pp.

Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong. 2013. Flora of China (online resource).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 10 FEB 2005 and was last updated on 2 NOV 2011.