Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pteris vittata
L., Pteridaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Chinese brake, Chinese ladder brake, ladder brake

Japanese: hoko-sida

Pohnpeian: limenkasar

Habit:  fern

Description:  "Terrestrial or lithophytic ferns. Rhizome short-creeping; scales numerous, conspicuous, c. 5 mm long, narrowly triangular, pale brown. Fronds monomorphic, arching, appearing to radiate from a crown. Stipe usually c. 2-25 cm long, pale brown, grooved, scaly towards base. Lamina 1-pinnate, oblong-obovate, c. 15-80 cm long, c. 5-30 cm wide. Pinnae closely spaced, to 25 cm long, narrowly oblong and tapering above, decreasing in length from apex to base, most pinnae attached by midrib only; base subcordate, ±overlying rachis; margins finely serrate in sterile zones. Lowermost pinnae very much shorter, deltoid to cordate; terminal pinna usually the longest; veins free, at ±90° to costa, simple or once-forked. Paraphyses abundant"  (Flora of Australia online).]

"Stems stout, short-creeping, densely scaly; scales pale brown. Leaves clustered, 1-10 dm. Petiole green to pale brown, 1-30 cm, densely scaly; scales dense proximally, extending to and along rachis. Blade oblanceolate, 1-pinnate, (15-)25-50(-80) x (6-)13-25 cm; rachis not winged. Pinnae numerous, separated proximally, closely spaced to barely overlapping distally, not remaining green through winter, not decurrent on rachis, not articulate to rachis, linear-lanceolate to linear-attenuate, simple, 2-18 cm x 4-9 mm; base asymmetrically cordate to widened or truncate; margins serrulate, prominently so near apex; apex acuminate, attenuate, or acute; scales of rachis grading into uniseriate hairs on abaxial costae, or hairs absent on abaxial costae; proximal pinnae not divided or lobed. Veins free, forked. Sori narrow, blade tissue exposed abaxially"  (Flora of North America).

Habitat/ecology:  On Guam, "common on exposed roadcuts, on limestone cliffs and banks, and on disturbed rocky ground in N. Guam" (Stone, 1970; p. 58).  In Australia, "found especially among rocks in and near creeks and in stone walls"  (Floral of Australia online).  "Tolerates dry conditions and bright sunlight"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 52).  "Roadsides and other disturbed habitats; coastal plain; 0-50 m.  Pteris vittata has escaped from cultivation. It is found on almost any calcareous substrate, such as old masonry, sidewalks, building crevices, and nearly every habitat in southern Florida with exposed limestone, notably pinelands. It is scattered throughout Florida and is sporadic, becoming less frequent to rare northward in the coastal plain"  (Flora of North America).

Propagation:  Spores

Native range:  Central and southern Africa, China, Taiwan, Japan, Thailand, Australia, now widespread in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: Moore 349 (US), Moore 364 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 4)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 4)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 4)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 4)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7886 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21006)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 29)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 64 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 44 (NY, BISH, PTBG), A. Dores 98 (NY, BISH, PTBG), L. Stemmermann 2911 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 24638)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 48716)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 49028)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2008) (p. 3)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 58)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 22065)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1915) (voucher ID: BISH 9087)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40125 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 21949)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
Probably introduced but not yet collected.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 34)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & B. Garnett H60728 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2004) (p. 17)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1887) (voucher ID: BISH 9092)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 14)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 5)
Voucher: Lorence 9851 (PTBG, BNM, NY, UC)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 144)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 47532)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. (1980) (p. 4)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1026)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 38)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15608, Yuncker 15612
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15147, Yuncker 16241
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16076
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38261)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris vittata L.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 17)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 73)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 68)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 21)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 23)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 13 APR 2008 and was last updated on 14 NOV 2008.