Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pteris cretica
L., Pteridaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: cretan brake, white-line Cretan brake (var. albolineata)

Habit:  fern

Description:  "Stems slender, creeping, sparingly scaly; scales dark brown to chestnut brown. Leaves clustered to closely spaced, to 1 m. Petiole straw-colored to light brown distally, darker proximally, 10-50 cm, base sparsely scaly. Blade irregularly ovate, primarily and irregularly pedately divided, 10-30 x 6-25 cm; rachis not winged; only terminal pinna decurrent on rachis. Pinnae 1-3 pairs, well separated, blade often 5-parted with terminal pinna and 2 lateral pairs of pinnae remaining green through winter, not articulate; sterile pinnae to 25 x 0.8-1.5 cm, serrulate; fertile pinnae narrower than sterile pinnae, to ca. 11 mm wide, spiny-serrate; base acute acroscopically and decurrent (sometimes narrowly and barely so) basiscopically, glabrous; proximal pinnae with 1 (rarely 2) basiscopic lobes. Veins free, simple or forked. Sori narrow, blade tissue exposed abaxially"  (Flora of North America).

"Rhizomes short-creeping, scaly. Stipes 25-75 cm long, more or less devoid of scales except at very base. Laminae ovate or broadly ovate, 20-40 x 10-30 cm, 1-pinnate or with lower pinnae forked. Primary pinnae in 2-7 pairs, widely spaced, linear, tapering to acute apices, entire or minutely crenate at apices, 12-27 x 0.8-1.8 cm; upper pinnae adnate; lower pinnae stalked. Sori occupying whole of both margins of pinnae except at apices, protected by reflexed margins" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 35).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, in "waste ground, cemeteries, road and tracksides. This is a commonly cultivated plant and occasionally escapes." (Webb et al., 1988; p. 35).

Propagation:  Spores

Native range:  "Widely cultivated and naturalized, exact native range obscure" (GRIN).  "Believed to be native to the Old World tropics and perhaps also to southern Mexico, and it is also considered native to Hawai‘i, where it grows in lower-elevation forests"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; pp 51-52).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1915) (voucher ID: BISH 8889)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris cretica L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands native
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (pp. 51-52)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 8896)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris cretica L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1910) (voucher ID: BISH 23349)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris cretica L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1919) (voucher ID: BISH 8890)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris cretica L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1922) (voucher ID: BISH 8906)
Taxon name on voucher: Pteris cretica L.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 18)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"A commonly cultivated fern, very rarely naturalised in N.S.W".
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 35)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of)   Rejmánek, M. (1996)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Reported to be an invasive species in Peru per Rejmánek, 1996.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 17 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 14 NOV 2008.