Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Prunella vulgaris
L., Lamiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Other Latin names:  Prunella asiatica Nakai

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xia ku cao

English: common selfheal, heal-all, self-heal

French: brunelle commune, brunelle vulgaire

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs from a caudex or short rhizome; stems erect, decumbent, or occasionally prostrate, sometimes rooting at the nodes, 1-5 dm long, villous-puberulent, sometimes glabrate.  Leaves lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate, 2-9 cm long, 0.7-4 cm wide, both surfaces sparsely scabrid, margins subentire to remotely crenulate, apex acute, base broadly cuneate to truncate, petioles usually 1-2 cm long.  Inflorescences 2-5 cm long, usually ca. 1.5-2 cm in diameter, bracts suborbicular to very broadly ovate, usually 7-10 mm long, apex abruptly short-acuminate, margins ciliate; calyx green or purple, 7-10 mm long; corolla blue or violet, occasionally pink or white, 8-16 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 828-829).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in usually mesic, disturbed areas, especially pastures and along streambeds in wet forest, 820-2,260 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 828-829).
In New Zealand, "usually wet or rather damp pastures and lawns, forest margins and clearings, dry banks and riverbeds, particularly when modified and open, less common in other habitats"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 788).

Propagation:  Seed, rooting from nodes (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 828-829).

Native range:  "North and Central America and temperate Europe and Asia"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 828-829).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Widespread as a weed on the island". Voucher cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5610 (MEL)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 828-829)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 828-829)
Voucher cited: Brigham et al. s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 828-829)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 788)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 23 NOV 2010 and was last updated on 25 NOV 2010.