Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Potamogeton crispus
(dummy value for TaxonCode Authority; this value should be replaced!!).......Potamogetonaceae


Chinese: zu cao

English: curled pondweed, curly pondweed, curly-leaved pondweed, curlyleaf pondweed, river weed

French: potamot crépu

"Submersed perennial herbs with rhizomes creeping above and below the mud and with fibrous roots on the lower side of each node.  Stems and rhizomes often 3 to 4 m long, richly branched, leaves alternate.  The small perfect flowers are on pedunculate axillary spikes, fruiting carpels are one-seeded, indehiscent seeds are without endosperm, the embryo with a large "foot," and the plumule enclosed by the cotyledon.  In P. Crispus the slender stems are laterally compressed, tending to be 4-angled with furrows on broader sides that are 0.5 to 2.5 mm wide; rhizomes may be buff or reddish in color; leaves alternate, sessile, narrowly lanceolate to linear-oblong, obtuse, serrulate, undulate to strongly wavy at margins, bright green to dark green, may be reddish, 0.75 to 1.5 cm wide, 10 cm long, free stipular sheath, stipular sheath 5 to 15 mm long, truncate, often disintegrating; inflorescence in 3 to 5 whorls of flowers, spike 1 to 2 cm long; fruiting carpels 2 to 7 mm long, 1.5 to 3 mm wide, dark olive to brownish, sometimes with strongly developed dorsal keel, conspicuous or somewhat curved beak, fruit body with smooth to strongly tuberculate sides"  (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 626-627). Found in ditches, streams and impoundments.  Mainly a freshwater plant, but will tolerate some brackishness.  (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 629, 631).

In Fiji, "a naturalized weed in low elevation ponds and rivers, sometimes carried into saltwater bays by floods.  It is a submerged herb, sometimes rooting at depths as much as 3 m., or found at the edges of fast-flowing steams and rivers, often in thick beds, and often associated with Hydrilla verticillata.  It has become a serious weed, especially in the Rewa River system, because of its tendency to become entangled in the propellers of small boats"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 130-131). Floating seed and asexually by turions (specialized vegetative buds) and stem fragments (Holm et al., 1997; pp. 632-637). Europe, Asia, northern Africa, Australia (GRIN).
Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 132)
Vouchers cited: DA 16631; DA 16630, DA 14527, DA 16613, DA 11543, DA 16626, DA 16623, DA 16622, DA 16602, DA 11828, DA L. 15599
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 630)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 630)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 630)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 630)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 630)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 37)
"In lakes, ponds, rivers, streams and water races".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 630)
See "Biology and control of aquatic plants: A best management practices handbook" for control information (large file, PDF format).


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