Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Portulaca pilosa
L., Portulacaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: mao ma chi xian

English: hairy pigweed

Hawaiian: ‘ākulikuli

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs from a taproot; stems green when young, usually purplish red when exposed to sun, prostate to weakly ascending, 3-20 cm long, forming irregular mats.  Leaves alternate or clustered at the ends of the branches, oblong-elliptic to linear, 4-15 (-25) mm long, 0.5-2 (-4) mm wide, petioles ca. 1-2 mm long, with a tuft of hairs 1-18 mm long in the axil.  Flowers (1) 2-10 in congested terminal cymes subtended by a series of involucrate leaves ca. 10-12 mm long, bracteoles 0.7-2.5 mm long, partly obscured by hairs ca. 3-18 mm long; sepals 2.5-5 mm long, margins somewhat scarious, apex sometimes inconspicuously hooded; petals (4) 5, magenta, obovate, 5-6 (-10) mm long; stamens (7-) 20-30; anthers globose to elliptic; style 3-7-branched.  Capsules broadly ellipsoid, ca. 2-3 (-4) mm long, circumscissile at or slightly below middle. Seeds dark blue with a metallic luster, the surface tuberculate, especially along margins" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1072-1074).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in usually dry, open, strand to coastal habitats or lava  fields, 0-620 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1072-1074). On Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), naturalized in gardens and on beaches (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 124).  In Papua New Guinea (presumably native), "cultivated as an ornamental plant, sometimes used in medicine.  Waste places among waysides, near shores, in garden beds"  (Conn, 1995; p. 216).

Propagation:  Seed (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 124).

Native range:  Pantropical (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1072-1074).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1072-1074)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1072-1074)
Voucher cited: Skottsberg 1062 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 27)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1072-1074)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1072-1074)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1072-1074)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1072-1074)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 118)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5198
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 118)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2606 (Z), Baumann 14543
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 118)
Voucher cited: MacKee 16818
Spontané
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 38)
subsp. pilosa and subsp. grandiflora (Hook.) Geesink
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Conn, Barry J., ed. (1995) (pp. 215-218)
Subsp. pilosa
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Dry open places near seashores".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 79)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 72)
Critically endangered
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 292)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 292)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 124)


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This page was created on 22 MAR 2005 and was last updated on 19 AUG 2011.