Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Polypogon monspeliensis
(L.) Desf., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chang mang bang tou cao

English: annual beardgrass, beard grass, Montpelier beardgrass, rabbitfoot beardgrass, rabbitfoot grass, rabbitfoot polypogon

French: polypogon de Montpellier

Spanish: pajilla, rabo de zorro

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annuals; culms tufted, often decumbent at base and rooting at nodes, 0.3-4 (-8) dm tall.  Sheaths smooth to scaberulous; ligule 2-6 (-12) mm long, puberulent, apex acute, lacerate, lateral margins splitting into auricle-like segments; blades usually flat, 1.5-5 (-12) mm wide, glabrous to scaberulous.  Panicles 1-6.5 (-10) cm long, compact, branches short, appressed to ascending; glumes subequal, narrowly elliptic, 1.5-2.5 mm long, keel and margins scabrous to hispidulous, especially toward base, awned from between rounded lobes of a bifid apex, the awn (4-) 4.5-9.5 (-10) mm long; lemma ca. 1/2 the length of the glumes, 0.7-1.2 mm long, ovate, smooth and glossy, apex minutely bifid, awn absent or very short and straight; palea nearly as long as lemma.  Caryopsis pale brown, fusiform to narrowly ovoid, 0.8-1 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1586).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, coastal marshes.  Where native, this grass is found mainly near the coast at the edges of salt marshes, other damp sites, and in disturbed sites.  It is invasive because it forms dense swards that crowd out native plants and prevent their regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 341).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in mesic to wet sites such as roadside drainages, wet pastures, and along streams, 0-1,220 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1586).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1586).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5441 (CANB, MEL), A.C. Beauglehole 5442 (CANB, MEL), P.S. Green 2327 (K, NSW)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1586)
Voucher cited: Rock 4189 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1586)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1586)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1586)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 162)
Roadside; presumable introduced in pasture seed.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1586)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 123)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 345)
In wet place.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 123)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 288)
"Usually coastal, on mud flats, salt marsh, lagoon or swamp margins, damp sand flats and sand dunes, roadsides, waste ground, coastal rocks and cliff edges; inland in moist ground along ditches or creeks or on river terraces".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 290)

Control:  "Specific control methods for this species are not available.  Scattered plants can be hand pulled or cut, larger populations treated with herbicide"  (Weber, 2003; p. 341).


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This page was created on 10 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 20 JAN 2011.