Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Poa pratensis
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results: 

High risk, score: 14 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
High risk:  (Go to the risk assessment (United States)) (PDF format).

Other Latin names:  Poa angustifolia L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: cao di zao shu he

English: Kentucky bluegrass, smooth meadow grass, smooth-stalked meadowgrass

French: pâturin des prés

Spanish: grama de prados, poa común, poa de los prados, zacate poa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials with extensive rhizomes forming a dense sod; culms slightly compressed, erect, (2-) 3-6.5 (-10) dm tall.  Sheaths smooth, but occasionally somewhat scabrous, closed to ca. 1/2 their length; ligule 0.5-1.7 (-3) mm long, margins usually entire, apex truncate; blades numerous, soft, usually green but occasionally glaucescent, flat or usually folded, 1-3 (-4.5) mm wide, margins usually scabrous, sometimes slightly pubescent and purple-tinged near collar, apex strongly boat-shaped.  Panicles open, often pyramidal, (2-) 4-5 (-9) per node; spikelets green or purple-tinged, 2-4-flowered, crowded, ovate, (3-) 4-5 (-6) mm long, strongly compressed; glumes scabrous on keel, first glume 1.8-2.5 (-3) mm long, 1-nerved, second glume 2.2-3.3 mm long, 3-nerved; lemmas 2.5-4 mm long, 3-5-nerved, lateral nerves weak, base with copious cobwebby hairs, keel and marginal nerves sericeous, glabrous between the nerves, apex obtuse or acute; palea nearly as log as lemma.  Caryopsis reddish brown, ellipsoid, ca. 1.5 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1584).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grassland, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands.  Where native, this grass is commonly found in meadows, pastures and disturbed sites.  It is invasive because it spreads rapidly and forms dense swards that crowd out native vegetation.  Populations reach high shoot densities and the large size makes it highly competitive to native grasses and forbs"  (Weber, 2003; p. 336).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed mesic to subalpine forest and alpine sites, 1,220-4,025 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1584).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Europe, widely naturalized in temperate and montane tropical regions" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1584).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 23)
"Introduced...as a pasture grass". Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5421 (CANB, MEL), A.C. Beauglehole 5422 (CANB, MEL)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Introduced...as a pasture grass". Voucher cited: F.C. Allen 179 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 215)
In several places on the south side, large tufts on the shore.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1584)
Voucher cited: Forbes 263.H (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1584)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1584)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 121)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 285)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
var. pratensis, var. angustifolia Smith and var. hirsuta Asch. & Graebn.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 176)
"Lowland to alpine in grassland and pasture, cultivated or waste ground".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  Dig out single plants, making sure to remove all pieces and rhizomes.

Chemical:  Treat with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 336).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 10 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 3 SEP 2011.