Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pluchea carolinensis
(Jacq.) G.Don, Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 15 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Conyza carolinensis Jacq.; Pluchea symphytifolia auct.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: cattletongue, cure-for-all, curry plant, pluchea, shrubby fleabane, sourbush, stinking fleabane, sweet scent, wild tobacco

I-Kiribati: te kaikare, te karei

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Erect shrub, pubescent throughout; leaves dull gray-green, elliptic-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic-subovate, 8-16 x 3-6 cm, petiolate, entire, base acute or tapered, apex acute or subobtuse; inflorescence compound, terminal and subterminal, somewhat corymbose in appearance; heads of rather numerous flowers; involucral bracts broadly deltoid; heads slightly urceolate, about 7 x 5 mm; perfect flowers 12-17 per head; corollas pink or pinkish to white, the 5 lobes very small, tooth-like; pappus bristles mostly 10-12 per achene; mature achenes brownish-black" (Stone, 1970; p. 589).

"Erect shrub 1-2.5 m tall, much branched, branches densely tomentose. Leaves oblong-ovate to elliptic, 6-15 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, thinly tomentose and glandular on both surfaces, upper surface green, lower surface grayish, apex mucronulate-obtuse, margins entire or nearly so, base attenuate, petioles 1-2.5 cm long. Capitula 5-7 mm (when fresh) or ca. 10 mm (in dried specimens) in diameter, 6 mm long, peduncles 3-8 mm long, densely congested into terminal and axillary corymbs. Involucres ovate to campanulate, bracts greenish-purplish, 4-5-seriate; the outer very widely elliptic to very widely obovate, rounded at apex, 2-4 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, tomentose abaxially, ciliate at margins; the inner lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, acute at apex, 4-5 mm long, 0.5-1 mm wide, sparingly pubescent to glabrous. Receptacles flat, glabrous. Outer florets numerous, corolla filiform, pale greenish white, pinkish toward summit, 3.5-4 mm long, tip 3-lobed; pappus white, slightly shorter than corolla; mature achenes not available for examination. Central florets ca. 20-25; corolla whitish, pinkish toward summit, 4-5 mm long, sparingly glandular hairy at base; anthers obtuse at apex, shortly tailed at base; anthers and style exserted; achenes vestigial as a small, cartilaginous ring" (Peng et al., 1998).

Habitat/ecology:  "Cure-for-all is adapted to a wide variety of soils and sites. It tolerates excessively well- to poorly-drained soils, the full range of soil textures, acid and alkaline reactions, salt and salt spray, and compaction. A minimum of about 1000 mm of mean annual precipitation is required in upland sites, but it grows in much drier climates along streams and near mangroves and marshes. Cure-for-all may be found from near sea level to 1,000 m in elevation in Hawaii (University of Hawaii Botany 2002). The species is intolerant and cannot endure overhead shade or severe competition from brush or grass. It is common in disturbed areas such as construction sites, riverbanks, the margins of hammocks, road cuts and fill, vacant lots, eroded sites, landslides, burned areas, and abandoned fields. In Hawaii, cure-for-all quickly invades burned areas, but being early successional, is soon replaced by other species (Smith and Tunison 1992). Plants sprout after fires if they are not too intense (University of Hawaii Botany 2002)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

This 1-2 m tall, fast-growing shrub forms thickets in dry habitats. It is found in Hawai‘i from sea level to 1,000 m elevation. "Common in pastures, forests, roadsides and vacant lots in dryer environments to wet areas.  Displaces forages in pastures and natives in natural areas"  (Motooka et al., 2003).  In New Caledonia, "parfois abondant mais reste localisé et semble être limité au Sud" (MacKee, 1994; p. 37).

"In Taiwan, P. carolinensis is naturalized in disturbed ruderal places of the countryside, often seen on barren mudstone slopes or associated with scrubby vegetation along roads. It occurs at ca. 50-200 m alt. Since the first discovery of this adventive species in Taiwan in 1987, its range has extended considerably on the island "  (Peng et al., 1998).

Propagation:  "The seeds are wind-dispersed and probably require wet, bare soil to germinate and establish themselves"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Native range:  A tropical American species, native from Mexico through Central America to northern South America and in the West Indies Islands, now widespread as a rather aggressive weed in many Pacific islands (Stone, 1970; p. 589).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132666)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1950) (voucher ID: PTBG 31160)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588197)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 594847)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Très envahissant dans les champs abandonnés et bords de piste, gagnant sur la végétation indigène. Semble actuellement confiné à ce seul motu". Voucher cited: J. Florence 12054 (PAP)
Adventice, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 663567)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 69)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64754 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: F.R. Fosberg 64754 (PAP)
Adventice, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 599719)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 589)
As Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 438130)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 15)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: Flynn et al. 4858 (BISH, PTBG), K.R. Wood 11546 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: RAF Nat. Hist. Soc. (Gallagher) J, Hamilton 4 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: MacDaniels [1950] (BISH), Fosberg & Stoddart 54888 (US, HAW, K), Fosberg & Walker 30210 (US), Degener & Hatheway 21295 (BISH, US, NY, A), Luomala 27 (BISH)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Luomala 27
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-64 (BISH 697679)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697679)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-15 (BISH 697630)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697630)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1988) (p. 15)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 583841)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 649608)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 334)
Voucher cited: St. John 23703
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 24405 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 132653)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 404903)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 583375)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 583376)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia. Reported present by Fosberg et al. (1979) but not seen by Whistler and Steele (1999) in their survey of the U.S.-leased islands.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31170, Fosberg 31208, Fosberg 39492. Not found on this survey and my longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 31170 (US), Fosberg 31208 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132654)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 567769)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Rongerik (Roñdik) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Rongerik (Roñdik) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 607636)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 71)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 99)
Pluchea sp.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Parfois abondante mais reste localisée et semble être limitée au Sud.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 37329, MacKee 37662, MacKee 39313
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Leprédour introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Veillon 6857
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 289)
As Pluchea symphytifolia
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 14, 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 132663)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G.Don
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 438085)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea symphytifolia (Mill.) Gillis
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 8)
Voucher: Flynn 6898 (PTBG, US)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 242)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 60)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 351, 1863)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-12)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 33)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 33621
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 15)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34447 (US)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (year unknown)
Communication to Aliens listserver.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 424760)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Espirito Santo Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (year unknown)
Communication to Aliens listserver.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 11, 32)
Cet arbuste est localement naturalisé et n’a été observé que dans un seul site de l’île (la décharge de Valokia) où il a apparemment été introduit avec des camions et des bulldozers abandonnés. Cette espèce peut se révéler très envahissante en zone littorale sur substrat calcaire.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Peng, Ching-I/Chen, Chih-Huei/Leu, Wen-Pen/Yen, Hsin-Fu (1998) (pp. 287-297)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Naturalized in disturbed ruderal places, often on barren mudstone slopes or associated with scrubby vegetation along roads, 50-200 m. Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1987, the species has extended its range in lowlands of southern part of the island".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 26)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37885)
Taxon name on voucher: Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)

Comments:  This species (alone and together with Pluchea indica) seem to be highly correlated with military airfields constructed in the Pacific during World War II. Per Bill Sykes (pers. com.), "introduced accidentally to Motu Moananui [Penrhyn Island, Cook Islands] at the time that American engineers built the airstrip in the Second World War." Not common there. Abundant near American military bases built on Santo and Efate Islands in Vanuatu. (Warea Orapa, communication to Aliens listserver).

"Readily hybridizes with Pluchea indica to form an intermediate plant known as Pluchea x fosbergii Cooperr. & Galang where the two species occur together (Whistler & Steele, 1999; pp. 36-37). Often found growing and hybridizing with P. indica (Stone, 1970; p. 589).

Widespread but not presently abundant on Guam.

Naturalizing on Tongatapu, Tonga but presently in a limited area as far as could be determined (along Alaivahamama road and between Taufa'ahau Road and the lagoon as far south as the Tongan National Centre) (Space & Flynn, 2001).

Control: 

Chemical: "Sensitive to 1 lb/acre 2,4-D, 0.5 lb/acre dicamba, and 0.25 lb/acre triclopyr. Readily controlled by 0.5 lb/acre triclopyr in drizzle applications. HAVO staff reported control with foliar application of glyphosate at 1% product (Chris Zimmer, HAVO)"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Biological: Some biological control agents have been introduced in Hawai‘i but they have not been effective (Julien, 1992; p. 30).  "A seed insect, Acinia picturata (Diptera: Tephritidae), was introduced in Hawaii andalthough now well established, has had no significant effect on the shrub (Alyokhin and others 2001)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 28 JAN 2013.