Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Platycerium bifurcatum
(Cav.) C.Chr., Polypodiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: common staghorn fern, elkhorn fern

French: corne d'élan

Habit:  fern

Description: 

Genus: "…epiphytic ferns, growing on trees and rocks, forming very large clumps. The fleshy light- to dark-green fronds are covered with small star-shaped hairs and are of two distinct types: the sheathing or covering fronds envelop the closely matted rhizome and extend upwards, forming a sheath; the fertile fronds, which extend outwards, are upright or pendulous, and are frequently large and lobed at the ends. The sori form thick patches on the underside of the fertile fronds." (Blombery, 1977; pp. 73-74).

Species:  "Rhizome scales bearing long, tan, multicellular hairs.  Base leaves rounded, kidney-shaped, to 1 inch across, upper margin wavy-lobed; foliage leaves erect or drooping, to three feet long, base narrowly wedge-shaped, broadening upward, apical portion 2-3-forked, segments slightly unequal, strap-shaped, to 1 foot x 1.25 inches; peti without scattered vascular bundles in central region.  Sporangia covering tips or entire underside of ultimate segments, usually extending around sinus"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 45).

Habitat/ecology:  Moist and wet forests. Widely cultivated.

Propagation:  Spores.  Pups also develop from the roots of mature plants (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 45).

Native range:  Australia and New Guinea (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 45).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 24)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994)
"On trees in the forest". Vouchers cited: J. Pickard 3361 (NSW), P.S. Green 2041 (A, K), J. Pickard 3425 (NSW), J. Pickard 3467 (NSW)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island cultivated
Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 45)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 45)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 45)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2005) (p. 45)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Epiphytic, occasionally lithophytic, in rainforest or wet sclerophyll forest".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Epiphytic, occasionally lithophytic, in rainforest or wet sclerophyll forest".
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
Pemberton, Robert W. (2003) (pp. 203-206)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 9 JUL 2008.