Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Plantago major
L., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da che qian

English: broad-leaved plantain, broadleaf plantain, common plantain, greater plantain, large plantain, plantain

Filipino: lanting, llantin

French: grand plantain, plantain des oiseaux, plantain majeur

Hawaiian: kūhēkili, laukahi

Japanese: to-oba-ko

Mangarevan: paki

Spanish: llantén, llantén común, llantén de hojas anchas, llantén major

Tongan: filo, filomatolu

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial herbs, roots fibrous, primarily adventitious, caudex short.  Leaves basal, ovate to broadly ovate or broadly elliptic, 3-40 cm long, 2-12 (-15) cm wide, 5-7-nerved, glabrous to sparsely pilose at least on veins, rarely moderately pilose, margins usually with a few blunt teeth, base abruptly cuneate, petioles 2-18 cm long.  Scapes 6-40 cm long, spikes 2.5-25 cm long, glabrous to sparsely pilose, flowers relatively crowded, bracts elliptic, 2.5-3 mm long, usually glabrous; sepals subequal, distinct, ovate to suborbicular, 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous; corolla lobes spreading, lanceolate, 1.2-1.6 mm long; ovary with 6-16 ovules.  Capsules ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, (1.5-) 2-3 mm long, dehiscent at or slightly below middle.  Seeds 6-16, dark brown, irregular, ca. 1 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1051-1052).

Habitat/ecology:  "Uncommon on roadsides and in other disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 33). "A common and very widely distributed weed in fields, along roadsides and in disturbed soil, from the tropics to cool temperate regions" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 416-417).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and often locally common in pastures, lawns, along roadsides and disturbed parts of virtually all vegetation types from coastal, disturbed forest to wet forest, 0-1,250 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1051-1052).  In Fiji, "naturalized as a weed in lawns and open places and along roadsides from near sea level to about 800 m" (Smith, 1991; p. 149).  In New Guinea, "a weed of cultivation, pasture and lightly-shaded plantations" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975p. 135). In Tonga, "occasional as a plantation and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 244). In New Zealand, "especially rather moist open places such as river beds, seepage areas on hillsides, drains, and anywhere subject to water runoff from buildings, also drier areas, particularly open modified situations such as roadsides, waste places and coastal sands" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 949).

"In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe and northern and central Asia, now cosmopolitan (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1051-1052).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 49)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"A weedy species usually characteristic of cultivated land and lawns". Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1214 & L.A.S. Johnson (NSW); Rocky Run, A.N.Rodd 1310 & L.A.S. Johnson (NSW), J. Pickard 2740 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"A weedy species usually characteristic of cultivated land and lawns". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1164 (K); P. Ralston 34 (A, K); 1898, I. Robinson (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461-462, 466, 556)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461-462, 466, 556)
Voucher cited: Danton G(1424)1189
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 149)
Voucher cited: DA 9641
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mbengga Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 149)
Vouchers cited: DA 2070, DA 2072
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 149)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 804, Tothill 662, DA 2102, Seemann 362, DA 9820, DA 9866
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 119 (GH), St. John 14548 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 14833 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 220)
Voucher cited: McKee s.n. 1955
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 220)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4504, Setchell & Parks 266, Florence 4616
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4616 (PAP), J. Florence 7226 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 32 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5631 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6353 (PAP), J. Florence 6419 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5527 (PAP), J. Florence 9186 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 64)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 423 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 260)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 48060. Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 115)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5269, MacKee 28213
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 115)
Vouchers cited: Baumann & Guillaumin 7560, MacKee 27945
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 115)
Voucher cited: MacKee 33827
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 949)
"Especially rather moist open places such as river beds, seepage areas on hillsides, drains, and anywhere subject to water runoff from buildings, also drier areas, particularly open modified situations such as roadsides, waste places and coastal sands".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 129)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 169)
Not common per Sykes. Voucher cited: CHR 168713
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 42)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 110)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9653 (BISH)
"Common roadside and plantation weed".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 46)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 135)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 393)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 491)
Occasional in waste places in and about towns, at medium altitudes; thoroughly naturalized.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & R. Clark 11295
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 689 (US), Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 690 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10788 (PAP)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 244)
"Occasional throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 244)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15602
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 244)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15077
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 244)
Cited: Crosby.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1051-1052)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 240)
Along roadside or in wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 283)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 949)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 124)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 12)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 29)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 390)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 131)


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 9 JAN 2011.