Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Plantago lanceolata
L., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: chang ye che qian

English: buckhorn, buckhorn plantain, English plantain, narrow-leaved plantain, needle pointed sack plantain, ribgrass, ribwort, ribwort plantain

French: bonne femme, herbe à cinq côtes, herbe caroline, herbe couteau, petit plantain, plantain, plantain, plantain lancéolé

Japanese: heraoobako

Maori (Cook Islands): no‘o‘anga tūpapaku

Niuean: motie

Spanish: llantén, llantén menor, siete venas

Tongan: filo, filo hako

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Perennial or biennial herbs from a taproot, caudex usually with tufts of long hairs around leaf bases.  Leaves basal, narrowly lanceolate to oblanceolate; 5-40 cm long, 0.5-4 cm wide, 5-nerved, long-villous or sometimes glabrous, margins remotely denticulate to subentire, along-attenuate to a winged petiole 0-15 cm long.  Flowers perfect or unisexual, scapes 15-50 cm long, spikes dense and head-like, ovoid to cylindrical, (0.5-) 1-10 (-12) cm long, flowers very crowded, bracts deltate to elliptic, 2.5-5 mm long, scarious, appressed pilose toward base; sepals strongly unequal, scarious, appressed pilose toward base; sepals strongly unequal, scarious, midrib ciliate, anterior pair completely connate, the connate structure elliptic, scarious, 2-nerved, 2.5-3.5 mm long, apex bifid, posterior pair distinct, ovate; corolla lobes spreading, 1.5-2.8 mm long; ovary with 2 ovules.  Capsules narrowly ellipsoid, 3-4 mm long, dehiscent near base. Seeds 2, yellow to pale brown, 2.3-3 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1051).

"Petite herbacée à rosette, reconnaissable à sa rosette de feuilles ovales et son inflorescence dressée" (Meyer, 2008; p. 25).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, coastal dunes.  This is an extremely variable species in the native range, with many varieties and subspecies ranging in growth habit from prostrate to erect.  The plant is a widespread weed and rapidly colonizes open areas.  It forms dense swards that crowd out native vegetation and prevent the establishment of native species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 335).  "Occasional to common in lawns and other disturbed, sunny places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 33).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and sometimes locally common in beach parks, coastal sites, open pastures and sometimes in open sites in mesic forest and subalpine shrubland, 0-3,110 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1051).  In Niue, "very common weed in plantations and waste places" (Sykes, 1970; p. 169).  In Tonga, "occasional as a dooryard and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 244). In New Zealand, "generally open modified places, particularly poor pastures, also a pioneer of river beds, landslips, coastal sands and talus, and cliff faces, common on many small offshore islands and often in remote coastal areas where very few other naturalised spp. occur" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 948).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Humid areas, with almost constant rainfall, short dry periods are possible (generally not longer than 1 month); somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "Seeds are sticky and adhere to animals.  They remain viable in the soil for a long time"  (Weber, 2003; p. 335).

Native range:  Europe and north-central Asia, widely naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1051).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"A common weed of pastures, lawns, roadsides etc.". Vouchers cited: M.D. Crisp 4578 & I.R.H. Telford (CBG, NSW), A.C. Beauglehole 5631 (CANB), B.G. Briggs 4814a (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"A common weed of pastures, lawns, roadsides etc.". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1114 (K); 1898, I.Robinson (NSW); J.D. McComish 56C (K); J.D. McComish 56D (K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 220)
Voucher cited: Zizka 1991:55
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 25, 29)
"Lors de cette mission, nous l’avons observé dans toute l’île, notamment dans les zones pâturées, les plages sableuses (Anakena), et se développant sur les sites archéologiques (« moai » de Hanga Roa, murets de pierre de Orongo)" (Meyer, 2008; p. 25).
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 344)
Taxon name on voucher: Plantago lanceolata
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 14798 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 220)
Voucher cited: Florence 7642
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7642 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
Voucher cited: Heller 2457 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 115)
Vouchers cited: Administration Pénitentiaire 210, Cribs 575, Le Rat 401, MacKee 13383, MacKee 26959, MacKee 27589, MacKee 46157
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 115)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 13833, MacKee 33827
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 948)
"Generally open modified places, particularly poor pastures, also a pioneer of river beds, landslips, coastal sands and talus, and cliff faces, common on many small offshore islands and often in remote coastal areas where very few other naturalised spp. occur".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 129)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 169)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168714, CHR 168715
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 42)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 110)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9941 (BISH)
"A common roadside and plantation weed".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 46)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 491)
In gardens, altitude about 2,200 m.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 33)
Not common per Whistler.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 244)
"Occasional throughout the group".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 244)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15203
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Crosby 231
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1051)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-12)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 240)
In wasteland or along roadside.
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
var. lanceolata and var. mediterranea Pilger
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 948)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 391)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 391, 393)

Control: 

Physical:  "Grazing or mowing may reduce the plant's growth"  (Weber, 2003; p. 335).

"La lutte manuelle par arrachage des plants est délicate sur les sites archéologiques (murets de pierre)"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 25).

Chemical:  "Effective herbicides are 2,4-D, MCPA dicamba, or fenoprop"  (Weber, 2003; p. 335).

"La lutte chimique ponctuelle par pulvérisation d’un herbicide sur les feuilles des plants en phase rosette (glyphosate ou paraquat) est possible" (Meyer, 2008; p. 25).


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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 20 JAN 2011.