Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pityrogramma calomelanos
(L.) Link, Pteridaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment).

Other Latin names:  Acrostichum calomelanos L.; Gymnogramma calomelanos var. aureoflava Hook.; Gymnogramma ochracea C. Presl; Pityrogramma austroamericana Domin

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Dixie silverback fern, gold fern (var. austroamericana), gold-dust fern (var. austroamericana), silver fern

Habit:  fern

Description:  "Fronds ±erect, dark green, glossy. Stipe 10-50 cm long, with 2 or 4 vascular bundles. Lamina 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, ovate, narrowly ovate, triangular or narrowly triangular, 15-45 cm long, 6-27 cm wide; veins obscure. Sporangia spread uniformly over the fertile segments. 

Var. calomelanosRhizome scales with an apical portion of 8-10 uniseriate cells; apical cell conical, eglandular. Stipe 15-50 cm long, with 2 vascular bundles. Lamina usually shorter than the stipe, 15-45 cm long, 6-27 cm wide; abaxial surface with white waxy indumentum, rarely glabrous; lowermost pinnae the largest. 

Var. austroamericanaRhizome scales with an apical portion of 8-10 uniseriate cells; apical cell spherical, sometimes glandular. Stipe 10-40 cm long, with 2 large and 2 small vascular bundles. Lamina 15-40 cm long, 9-15 cm wide; abaxial surface with golden yellow waxy indumentum; lowermost pinnae c. the same length as, or smaller than, the pair immediately above"  (Flora of Australia online).

Habitat/ecology:  In Australia, "on retaining walls, road cuttings, mining overburden or among rocks, occurring sometimes as a weed in pineapple and banana plantations" (Flora of Australia online).

Propagation:  Spores

Native range:  Mexico, Central and South America (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 3)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 3)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 3)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: D.H. Lorence , L. Dunn , S.P. Perlman , K.R. Wood & J.-Y. Meyer 9022 (PAP), K.R. Wood 10106 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39399)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40528)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40529)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman & C.E. Wood 19236 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7446 (PAP), B. Toutain 4239 (PAP), S.P. Perlman 10020 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence & J.-Y. Meyer 8950 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39403)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: L. Dunn & K.R. Wood 386 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40997)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence, L. Dunn, K.R. Wood & T. Teikiehuupoo 9106 (PAP)
Naturalized and abundant locally and along roadsides in moist areas.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 118)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11656 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 63006 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.-F. Butaud & F.A. Jacq 64 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 118)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: T.A. Ranker & P.G. Trapp 1945 (PAP), J. Florence 2095 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 118)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3501 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63149 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 10482 (PAP), J. Florence 10605 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 118)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6956 (PAP), J. Florence 8771 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 40 (PAP), M. Guérin 751 (PAP)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 57-58)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1908) (voucher ID: BISH 7700)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1909) (voucher ID: BISH 7693)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1951) (voucher ID: BISH 7728)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 7696)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1912) (voucher ID: BISH 1261)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1908) (voucher ID: BISH 7698)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 13)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 5)
Voucher: Lorence 9837 (PTBG, BNM, NY, UC)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 131)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. (1980) (p. 4)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 14156)
Taxon name on voucher: Pityrogramma calomelanos
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 39)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Voucher cited: T.S. Henshall 1358 (DNA)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
Vouchers cited: A.W. Dockrill 1241 (QRS), A.R. Bean 4028 (BRI); var. austroamericana D.A. Smith 107 (BRI), M. Hawken (BRI), R.G. Coveny 9406 (BRI, CANB).
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 19)
Ornamental.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 124)
Rainforest clearings, minesites, disturbed areas.
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 21)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 59)
Vouchers cited: Todd 12, Todd 19
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 13 APR 2008 and was last updated on 6 MAR 2010.