Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pittosporum tobira
(Thunb.) Aiton fil., Pittosporaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 3.5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hai tong

English: Australian laurel, Japanese cheesewood, Japanese pittosporum, mock orange, tobira

Japanese: tobera

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Shrubs or small trees to 6 m tall. Young branchlets lenticellate. Leaves clustered at branchlet apex, biennial; petiole ca. 2 cm; leaf blade dark green and shiny adaxially, dull after drying, obovate or obovate-lanceolate, 4-9 x 1.5-4 cm, leathery, lateral veins 6-8-paired, connected at margin, sometimes reticulate veins conspicuous between lateral veins, base narrowly cuneate, margin entire, revolute, apex rounded or obtuse, usually emarginate or slightly cordate. Inflorescences terminal or near so, umbellate or corymbose; bracts lanceolate, 4-5 mm; bracteoles 2-3 mm; pedicels 1-2 cm; flowers fragrant. Sepals lanceolate, 3-4 mm. Petals free, white at first, becoming yellow later, oblanceolate, 1-1.2 cm. Stamens dimorphic: filament 2-3 mm and anther nearly sterile in reduced stamens; filament 5-6 mm and anther yellow, oblong, and ca. 2 mm in fertile stamens. Ovary long ovoid, densely pubescent; placentas 3; ovules numerous, in 2 rows. Capsule globose, angular, ca. 1.2 cm in diameter, dehiscing by 3 valves, ± pubescent; pericarp yellow-brown and shiny adaxially, ca. 1.5 mm thick, woody, horizontally striate; stipe 1-2 mm. Seeds numerous, red, angular, ca. 4 mm; funicle ca. 2 mm"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  In Japan, "sunny slopes near the sea; often planted in gardens and for hedges" (Ohwi, 1965; p. 515).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  China, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7217 (PAP)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 87)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Fagerlund 285 (BISH 63517), Herbst 1996 (BISH 402359)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher cited: Flynn 3124 (BISH 535123)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Landgraf s.n. (BISH 11840)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Holt s.n. (BISH 22053), St. John 20327 (BISH 63516)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 114)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 25709, MacKee 41072
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 87)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated for ornament and possibly naturalized, forests, limestone areas, slopes, sandy seashores, roadsides;; sea level to 1800 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 122)
Ornamental.
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 70)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Native in N. Taiwan".


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This page was created on 10 NOV 2000 and was last updated on 11 DEC 2010.