Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pinus thunbergii
Parl., Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 8 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Pinus thunbergiana Franco

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hei song, ri ben hei song

English: black pine, Japanese black pine, Thunberg's pine

Japanese: kuro-matsu

Korean: haesong

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 2 m d.b.h. in native range; bark dull gray when young, aging gray-black, rough and thick, scaly and decidous; crown broadly conical or umbrellalike; 1st-year branchlets pale brown-yellow, glabrous; winter buds silvery white, cylindric-ellipsoid or cylindric, scales fringed at margin. Needles 2 per bundle, dull green, shiny, 6-12 cm x 0.5-2 mm, rigid, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 6-11, median, base with persistent sheath, margin serrulate. Seed cones solitary or 2 or 3 together, shortly pedunculate, brown, conical-ovoid or ovoid, 4-6 x 3-4 cm, deciduous. Seed scales ovate-elliptic; apophyses slightly swollen, obviously cross keeled; umbo slightly concave, apex blunt. Seeds obovoid-ellipsoid, 5-7 x 2-3.5 mm; wing gray-brown, 1-1.1 cm"  (Flora of China online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Naturally adapted to coastal conditions, it tolerates strong wind and salt spray but requires excellent drainage.  Prefers sunny conditions"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; pp. 70-71).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Japan and South Korea; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 5)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 30 OCT 2012.