Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pinus radiata
D.Don, Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 5 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: insignis pine, Monterey pine, radiata pine

Spanish: pino, pino quebradizo, pinus insigne

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Medium-sized to very large tree; habit variable, generally ± spreading, with foliage in dense terminal clusters.  Bark thick, deeply fissured and ridged in mature trees, dark grey on surface, reddish brown beneath.  Shoots brown or greyish brown, occasionally somewhat glaucous when young, glabrous.  Buds cylindric or cylindric-ovoid, thinly resinous; scales appressed, chestnut-brown.  Leaves 3 per fascicle, (3)-6-15 cm x 1.2-2 mm, deep or dark green, ± spreading, moderately rigid; resin canals median; sheath initially long but rarely greater than 1 cm long on mature leaves, persistent.  Female strobili 0.7-1.5 cm long, cylindric.  Conelets stalked, cylindric, scales with short mucro.  Mature cones sessile or subsessile, 1-c. 6 in a cluster, backward pointing but not pendent, long-persistent, eventually falling intact, 6-13 x 4.5-8.5 cm when closed, ± ovoid, brown at maturity; base asymmetric; apophyses on upper side enlarged and rounded, umbo usually not armed at maturity.  Seed wing ± oblong, only slightly wider towards apex, 1.5-2 cm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 58).

Habitat/ecology:  "Radiata Pine establishes readily, creates dense shade, and carpets the ground thickly with needles. It depletes the soil of nutrients and water, changes soil chemistry, and excludes native plants. It favours the growth of weed seeds dropped by perching birds. A significant fire hazard"  (Weeds of Blue Mountains bushland).  "Grass- and heathland, riparian habitats, coastal dunes, scrub.  A fast growing tree with a juvenile period of c. 5 years, adapted to fire and with cones that may remaini closed on the tree for years.  The tree is a prolific seed produceer, and fires lead to mass relase of seeds.  It establishes well in burned areas and forms dense stands that may cover large areas.  The native vegetation is eliminated and transformed into species-poor woodland.  A thick litter layer accumulates beneath stands of this tree, preventing establishment of native plants"  (Weber, 2003; p. 330).

In Hawai‘i (East Maui), "it is invading pastures and native subalpine shrublands, 1951 m" (Oppenheimer, 2002; p. 21). In New Zealand to nearly 1000 m in the north. "Usually only a minor escape from cultivation in open or much disturbed sites in the vicinity of planted trees, occasionally extensively naturalised in scrub and herbaceous vegetation on slopes down-wind from plantations or forests" (Webb et al., 1988; p. 58).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north; some shadow, some protection against direct sunlight, some shadow from vegetation, filtering about 20-40% of light"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Wind-dispersed seed.  Seeds may be held in the cones for five years or longer with no loss of viability.  Seeds are released from the cones in hot, dry summers or as a result of fire (Cronk & Fuller, 2001; p. 106).

Native range:  California and Mexico (Baja California) (GRIN)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 466, 556)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 461, 466, 556)
Voucher cited: Danton G(1336)1100
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2002) (p. 21)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H89901 (BISH), G.R. Ewart III s.n. (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 330)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Widely lightly naturalised in most areas where planted".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
"Widely lightly naturalised in most areas where planted".
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cedros & Guadalupe Islands
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 58)
"Usually only a minor escape from cultivation in open or much disturbed sites in the vicinity of planted trees, occasionally extensively naturalised in scrub and herbaceous vegetation on slopes down-wind from plantations or forests".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young trees, cut larger trees. In fire adapted plant communities the area can be burned after a few months when the seeds have germinated to reduce seedling populations (Weber, 2003; p. 330).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 21 OCT 2004 and was last updated on 31 OCT 2012.