Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pinus pinaster
Aiton, Pinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Pinus maritima Lam.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hai an song

English: cluster pine, maritime pine, pinaster pine

French: pin maritime

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Medium-sized to large tree with rather open crown, the stout trunk becoming bare of branches for most of length. Bark thick, deeply fissured and forming small irregular plates with smooth, dark red or reddish brown surfaces. Shoots deep brown or brownish, ± shining, glabrous, with remains of leaf bases prominent. Buds cylindric-oblong, sometimes very large (> 4 x 1.5 cm), not resinous; scales dark reddish, reflexed, with margins strongly white-fimbriate. Leaves 2 per fascicle, 6-17-(26) cm x c. 2 mm (nearly always appearing narrower because of incurved margins), dull green, rigid, pungent; resin canals median; sheath 5-10 mm long in older leaves. Male strobili < 1.5 cm long, ellipsoid or broad-ellipsoid. Conelets sessile, prominent and broad-ellipsoid; scales obtuse, acute or mucronate. Mature cones often persistent for several years, sessile or subsessile, 7-15 x 4-6 cm when closed (to 19 x 9 cm in cultivation), usually cylindric-ovoid, sometimes ovoid (small cones), ± symmetric; apophyses rhomboid, keeled, shining brown; umbo prickly. Seed wing asymmetric, to 2.5-(3) cm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 56).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, forests, coastal scrub and dunes.  Where native, this tree is common on sandy and poor soils near the coast.  There are two subspecies in Europe.  The tree is drought tolerant and adapted to fires.  The tree is invasive because the dense stands displace native vegetation and alter nutrient and water relations. The thick litter layer that accumulates under the canopies prevents seedling establishment of native plants.  The juvenile period of this tree lasts for c. 10 years"  (Weber, 2003; p. 329).

In New Zealand, "scrub, open places such as grassy slopes, cliff faces.  [It] thrives on poor soils and regenerates very prolifically after fire"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 56).  In Australia, "growth is most prolific on acidic, leached soils in areas that have temperate (winter and summer rainfall) and sub-tropical (summer rainfall) climates.  Under suitable conditions it can form a monospecific, even-aged woodland or forest.  it does not resprout after fire but seedling reproduction can be prolific.  It is highly flammable when green or dry and dense growth can alter natural fire regimes"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 188).

Propagation:  "Reproduces from wind-dispersed seeds which can travel up to 1 km from the parent tree"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 188).

Native range:  "Europe and North Africa (Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean climate) and is common in the maquis and garrigue vegetation types of the Mediterranean"  (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 188).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Cuevas, Jaime G./Marticorena, Alicia/Cavieres, Lohengrin A. (2004) (p. 537)
Voucher cited: JF 237
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 116)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 65)
Voucher cited: Papineau in MacKee 43243
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 188)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 188)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Often planted as windbreaks and as ornamental trees, sometimes naturalized".
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 188)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Jiangsu, Jiangxi (Lu Shan)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 56)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Utilisé pour la foresterie, envahissant.
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
North Carolina

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and saplings are easy to pull out.  Larger trees can be cut.  Stumps usually do not require herbicide treatment to prevent regrowth if cuts are made below any branches.  Trees can also be killed by ringbarking.  Fire is used to kill larger stands but may lead to mass release of seeds.  Seedlings need to be controll in follow-up programmes"  (Weber, 2003; p. 329).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 16 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 31 OCT 2012.