Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Pinus nigra
J. F. Arnold, Pinaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Pinus laricio Poir.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ou zhou hei song, so di li song

English: Austrian pine, black pine, Calabrian black pine, Corsican pine, Crimean pine, European black pine, Pyrenees pine

French: pin laricio, pin noir

Japanese: nigura matsu, yooroppa kuro matsu

Spanish: pino gargallo, pino larico, pino negral, pino salgareño

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Medium-sized to large tree with habit varying from narrowly columnar to spreading. Bark fissured, exfoliating in large plates, grey on surface, cream to pale brown beneath. Shoots shining brown or yellowish brown, glabrous. Buds ovoid and tapering to a slender point, sometimes cylindric, not or only thinly resinous, occasionally more strongly resinous; scales ± appressed (at least in living material), brown in centre with a narrow to broad, white, ± erose margin (bud sometimes appearing almost completely white). Leaves 2 per fascicle, sometimes in dense terminal masses, (4)-6-16 cm x 1-1.5 mm, deep green, straight or curved, rigid to rather flexible, scarcely twisted; resin canals median; sheath to c. 1.5 cm long at first, gradually wearing away except for a basal fringe. ♂ strobili 1-1.5 cm long, broad-cylindric. Conelets sessile or subsessile; scales with or without small curved mucro. Mature cones sessile, often pendent, solitary or clustered, deciduous at or soon after maturity, 4-9 x 2.5-3.5 cm when closed, ovoid-conic, symmetric, yellowish brown or brown; apophyses keeled; umbo with very small, often deciduous, prickly mucro. Seed wing ± asymmetric, 1-2 cm long"  (Webb et al., 1988; 54).

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "Subsp. laricio:  Around forests, plantations and shelter belts, sometimes spreading downwind for many kilometres into scrub and grassland.  In some inland parts of the South Island, Corsican pine is aggressive and has invaded many hectares of scrub and grassland.  Subsp. nigra: Around forests, plantations and shelter belts, occasionally aggressively invading nearby grassland to c. 1000 m. As with Corsican pine, trees of Austrian pine cone freely and produce large quantities of viable seed" (Webb et al., 1988; 55).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "From the Pyrenees to the Balkan Peninsula and Crimea"  (Webb et al., 1988; 54).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
var. corsicana (Loudon) Hyl.
Sporadically weakly naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
var. corsicana (Loudon) Hyl.
Sporadically weakly naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (pp. 54-55)
subsp. laricio (Poiret) Maire Bull., subsp. nigra
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 3 SEP 2012 and was last updated on 1 OCT 2012.