Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Pimenta dioica
(L.) Merr., Myrtaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Myrtus dioica L.; Myrtus pimenta L.; Pimenta officinalis Lindl.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: allspice, Jamaica pepper, pimento

Spanish: malaqueta

Tongan: sipaisi

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree 6-12 m tall; petioles 10-18 mm long; leaf blades 6-16 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, main veins 12-16 pairs, prominent beneath; inflorescence of axillary, pedunculate cymes, the peduncles mainly 3-7 cm long; flowers white, 6-10 mm wide; calyx 4-lobed; fruit dark purple at maturity, globose, 5-7 mm thick"  (Welsh, 1998; p. 199).

Habitat/ecology:  Dry and moist forests and open areas, up to 3000 ft. elevation in Hawai‘i.

Propagation:  Seed, spread by birds.

Native range:  West Indies and possibly parts of Central America and southern Mexico, now widely cultivated.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 116)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 191)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 305-306)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 453-454)
Cultivated? Present status unknown.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: J. Parker & R. Parsons BIED117 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: D. Lorence et al. 5939 (PTBG), T. Flynn 580 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 28)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 010425-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2012) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: F. Kraus FK06 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 101)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll cultivated
Herbst, D. R. (1988)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 174)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 8)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 8)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 8)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 107053)
Taxon name on voucher: Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 8)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Very invasive on ‘Eua, Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2002).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 3 JAN 2008.