Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Pilea microphylla
(L.) Liebm., Urticaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiao ye leng shui hua

English: artillery fern, artillery plant, gunpowder plant, pistol plant, rockweed

Maori (Cook Islands): kiona topa

Marshallese: likotot tot, loktõktõk, loktôktôk, mõlowi

Niuean: pikimaka

Pingelapan: re

Pohnpeian: limw in tuhke, limwin tuhke

Samoan: tamole, tamole

Satawalese: seling

Tongan: limu

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or short-lived perennial herbs; stems succulent, sometimes slightly woody at base, spreading or cespitose, 5-50 cm long.  Leaves crowded throughout stem length, obovate, elliptic, oblanceolate, or oblong, 2-10 mm long, 1-4 mm wide, those of a pair very unequal in size, sometimes some branches with leaves of a pair equal or all leaves of plant equal, 1-nerved, upper surface with crowded elliptic cystoliths, lower surface finely reticulate, margins entire, petioles 1-4 mm long, always shorter than the blade, stipules ca. 1 mm long.  Flowers unisexual (and the plants monoecious or dioecious), in sessile glomerules or cymes, peduncles 1-6 mm long; staminate flowers 0.6-1 mm long, calyx lobes glabrous, each with a blunt, dorsal, apiculate appendage; pistillate flowers 0.8-1 mm long, outer calyx lobe slightly longer than others, with inconspicuous dorsal, apiculate appendages.  Achenes ellipsoid, compressed, 0.5-1 mm long, slightly longer than the largest calyx lobe" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1306).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occasional around houses and on rock walls" (Whistler, 1988; p. 39).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized in low elevation, mesic, disturbed sites" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1306).  In Fiji, "a sprawling or prostrate weed, often subligneous at base, on damp rocks and along shaded creeks, often near dwellings" (Smith, 1981; pp. 237-238). In Niue, " a characteristic little succulent plant of rock crevices and fissures in the rather open Lower Terrace forest, where it is often very common.  It also grows in the villages on coral walls and similar places, especially in shade or partial shade.  These habitats are typical for this adventive species in many other tropical Pacific islands"  (Sykes, 1970; pp. 210-211).  In Papua New Guinea, "a weed of nursery and garden beds, paths and house-yards, spreading rapidly on cleared soil in shaded situations" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 157). In Tonga, "occasional on moist soil, wall, rocks, and so forth, especially about villages" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 102). In New Caledonia, "une forme relativement robuste, est parfois cultivée dans les jardins; une très petite forme est abondante en stations fraîches et humides par terre, sur vieux murs et dans les anfractuosités des terrasses coralliennes du littoral" (MacKee, 1994; p. 137).

Propagation:  Seed. "Small pieces of stem are able to take root, if lying on the soil" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 157).

Native range:  Southern Florida (US), the West Indies and Mexico south to tropical South America (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1306).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3486
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 1320
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 10548)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 48575)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"Recently recorded as a garden weed on bare soil". Voucher cited: W.R. Sykes NI 659 (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 27)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23430)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 23980)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 27)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 27)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Nassau Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Lukunor (Núkúnooch) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7854 (PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 21010)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27724)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla Liebm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Mokil (Mwokil) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pingelap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2453 (US), Glassman 2525 (US), Takamatsu 806 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 139-140)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 4293 (NY, PTBG), S.F. Glassman 2453 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2525 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2619 (BISH), S. Perlman 20367 (PTBG), M. Takamatsu 806 (BISH), C.Y.C. Wong 61 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Eauripik Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Evans, M. (1969) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Evans 348 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Fais Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 23289)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Satawal Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1969) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 46900 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Woleai Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 24322)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 237-238)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 1002, 1002B; Meebold 8205; DA 12264; DA 11593
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 11036 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 290)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63084
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11655 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 290)
Voucher cited: Moore 423
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3493 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 149)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 290)
Vouchers cited: Grant 4518, Florence 3213, BRY 25968
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3213 (PAP), J. Florence 8757 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 65)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3077 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll   Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 32)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 19)
Cultivated in pot.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J. (1997) (pp. 235-236)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11208 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11326 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6221 (PAP), J. Florence 9245 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 257)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4695 (GUAM), Necker 372, Moore 221, Steeve 137
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1987) (voucher ID: PTBG 22834)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 23879)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1306)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1306)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109930 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1306)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2006) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H40407 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1306)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1972) (voucher ID: PTBG 33039)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 13)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ailinglaplap (Ailinglapalap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ebon (Epoon) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 70)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 15)
Vouchers cited: St. John 21670 (BISH), Fosberg 26718 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 12)
"Locally common; ruderal in wetter areas, often growing along with ferns on old stumps ".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: Herbst 8961, Whistler 11260
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 47252)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Ujelang Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 70)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 12)
"Occasional; on rocks and coconut bases in moist areas".
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 130)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A23)
Uncommon; few plants near in private yard, Mili.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 203)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58713 (US), Thaman & Manner 8 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 137-138)
Voucher cited: MacKee 5196
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 137-138)
Voucher cited: Schmid 2665
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 137-138)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 8447, MacKee 6456, MacKee 9840, Nothis 48 (NOU), MacKee 26222, MacKee 29822
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 210)
Voucher cited: CHR 169837
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 48)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 49)
"Common on moist walls and shaded soil".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 45)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 104)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 102)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 8)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Lorence 8263 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 27941)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 98)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 106)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 60)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Ngerchong Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 1433)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Urukthapel (Ngeruktabel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 108)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 61)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 813)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 153)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 157)
From sea level to 700 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (pp. 76-77)
In and about towns, on damp walls, etc.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 99)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘apai Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 550, Soakai 695
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: Soakai 405
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 102)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15174
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 79)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 738, Soakai 1015
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Woodroffe 186 (CHR)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 54)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Takeuchi 9069 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Shannon, Robynn K./Wagner, Warren L. (1996) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Long 1748 (US), Lamoureux 2765 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Herbst & Takeuchi 9069 (BISH)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 21)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 38)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 39)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 67)
Naturalized, common in Hong Kong.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 181)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 89)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 69)
Naturalised
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 148)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 893 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 30)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38087)
Taxon name on voucher: Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 16)
"In crevices in walls along streets". Voucher cited: Fosberg 36914
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 184)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2861 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 156)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3121 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 174)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2343 (K)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 22 JUN 2010.