Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Physalis peruviana
L., Solanaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: deng long guo

English: bladderberry, cape gooseberry, goldenberry, gooseberry tomato, obra cabbage, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian ground-cherry

Fijian: botebote yadra, kospeli, maulanggua, mbotembote yandra, tukiyandra

French: alkékenge du Pérou, capuli, coqueret comestible, coqueret du Pérou, coqueret du Peru, groseiller canaque, groseiller du cap

Hawaiian: pa‘ina, pohā

I-Kiribati: te baraki, te bin

Mangarevan: maru

Maori (Cook Islands): tupera, tūpere, tūpere

Nauruan: oatamo, watamo

Niuean: manini, manini fua lalahi

Other: goundou-goundou, winebusupén

Spanish: alquequenje, capulí, uvilla, uvilla, uvilla

Tahitian: tupere

Tongan: ku‘usi

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Soft-wooded, short-lived shrubs up to ca. 1 m tall, straggly with age, all parts densely pubescent with erect, simple or glandular hairs up to 1 mm long.  Leaves simple, alternate, usually geminate, 1 larger than the other, ovate-acuminate, often 6 cm long, 4 cm wide, margins entire or rarely with a few blunt lobes, apex acuminate, base cordate, petioles 2-3 cm long.  Flowers perfect, actinomorphic, solitary in the leaf axils, pedicellate; calyx connate in lower ", 5-lobed, veins often prominent, the lobes acumunate-triangular, ca. 1 cm long, distinct at apex; corolla yellow with well-defined purplish brown spots at base, 15-20 mm in diameter, the limb rotate or shallowly 10-lobed, the tube swollen into shallow nectary pouches between the filaments, densely pubescent with pale yellowish dendritic hairs below the spots and around the nectaries; style 5-7 mm long.  Berries pale yellow, drying pale brown, aromatic, succulent, globose, 1.5-2 cm in diameter, enclosed in the inflated calyx 3-3.5 cm long.  Seeds numerous, pale brown, discoid, 1.75-2 mm long, minutely shallowly reticulate, embryo curved, endosperm present" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1265).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests and forest edges, riparian habitats, disturbed sites.  This large herb forms dense thickets that crowd out native vegetation.  Littlee is known on the ecology of this species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 322).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in disturbed sites in mesic to wet forest, diverse mesic forest, and subalpine woodland, 450-2,020 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1265).  In Fiji, "seen at elevations from near sea level to 900 m in gardens and also naturalized in forest along trails and streams, in clearing, and in cultivated areas" (Smith, 1991; p. 29).  In Niue, "a common weed in some plantations" (Sykes, 1970; p. 197).  "Uncommon in plantations and waste places but sometimes collected for food" (Whistler, 1988; p. 36). In Tahiti, "frequent in all the cool valleys to 800 m" (Welsh, 1998; p. 273). In Tonga, "occasional as a plantation weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 237). In New Caledonia, "peu cultivé malgré les fruits comestibles; largement répandu comme mauvaise herbe" (MacKee, 1994; p. 131).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  South America (Smith, 1991; p. 29).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 208)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 21)
"An occasional weed of wasteland and open areas". Vouchers cited: G. Uhe 1282 (K), L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1228 (NSW), J. Pickard 1480 (NSW), J. Pickard 2828 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"An occasional weed of wasteland and open areas". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1394 (A), W.R. Sykes NI 606 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
Widely spread.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 245)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Seemann 338
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 29)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 802, Parks 20575, Gillespie 4304, Gibbs 707, DA 16704, Smith 8692, DA 11437
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 23)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14861 (BISH), St. John 14874 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6899 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Welsh, S. L. (1998)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6964 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 245)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1265-1266)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1265-1266)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1265-1266)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1265-1266)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1265-1266)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1265-1266)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 288)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 245)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 131)
Vouchers cited: Deplanche s.n., Schmid 1328 (NOU)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 131)
Voucher cited: Däniker 1997
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 131)
Vouchers cited: Balansa 525, Brousmiche 416, Cribs 1224, Gaillard in MacKee 26921
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 131)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 15801, MacKee 23509
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 143)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1234)
"Open habitats such as roadsides, waste places, beaches, freshwater mudflats and cultivated ground".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 197)
Voucher cited: CHR 170265
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 105)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9759 (BISH), Yuncker 10088 (BISH)
"Occasional in waste areas and plantations".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 753)
Taxon name on voucher: Physalis peruviana L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 423)
Thoroughly established in open waste places.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 49)
Vouchers cited: R. A. Young 30, St. John 14973
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 36)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Parks 16327, Soakai 371
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 73)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 250, Soakai 742
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 237)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15087
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 237)
Cited: Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 49)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 322)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 223)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Near roads, river valleys, cultivated and naturalized; 1200-2100 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 279)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 188)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1234)
"Open habitats such as roadsides, waste places, beaches, freshwater mudflats and cultivated ground".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"In disturbed uplands".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
MacDonald, I. A. W./Thebaud, C./Strahm, W. A./Strasberg, D. (1991) (pp. 51-61)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 61)

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young plants.

Chemical:  Cut large plants or treat with herbicide.  "Probably susceptible to hormone-type herbicides, especially when young, and probably to tebuthiuron"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 5 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.