Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phleum pratense
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ti mu cao

English: meadow cat's-tail, timothy

French: fléole des près

Spanish: cola de topo, timoti

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Loose or dense tufts to 1 m. Leaf-sheath subcoriaceous, rounded, open, striate, glabrous, green to dark brown at base. Ligule 1-2.5-(4) mm, membranous, truncate or slightly rounded. Leaf-blade 9-17.5-(25) cm x 3-4.5 mm, flat, narrowed to finely pointed tip, striate, minutely scabrid throughout or only towards tip; margins minutely scabrid. Culm (30)-60-85 cm, erect or ascending from geniculate base, usually stout, internodes smooth, or finely scabrid below panicle; basal nodes sometimes swollen and tuberous. Panicle (4)-12-23 cm x 6-9 mm, dense, spike-like, cylindric, green, greyish green or purplish; rachis very stout, with scattered fine hairs concealed beneath spikelets, pedicels very short. Spikelets 2.5-3.5 mm, tightly packed. Glumes (3)-3.5-5 mm, oblong, truncate, 3-nerved, membranous, covered with short fine hairs, margin of lower glume softly hairy; keel stout, with large stiff hairs, and produced to a short scabrid awn (0.8)-1-1.5 mm. Lemma 1.5-2.5-(3) mm, 5-7-nerved, membranous, broadly oblong, obtuse, minutely hairy. Palea (1.2)-1.5-2-(2.5) mm. Lodicules 0.4-0.6 mm. Anthers 1.3-2.2 mm. Caryopsis slightly > 1 mm"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 286).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grassland, coastal scrub, disturbed sites.  A common grass of meadows and pastures in the native range.  The grass is invasive because it spreads quickly and forms dense colonies that crowd out native plants and prevent their regeneration"  (Weber, 2003; p. 320).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Northern Africa, Europe and Asia (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Forbes 1019.K (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Hosaka 2597 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Wagner, Warren L. (1999) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: Hatheway et al. 338 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Northern China.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 275)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 286)
"Pastures, waste land, roadsides and track margins".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Mowing close to the ground or slipping may reduce the plant's vigor".

Chemical:  Large populations can be treated with herbicide  (Weber, 2003; p. 320).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 21 FEB 2007 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.