Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phalaris angusta
Nees ex Trin., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: narrow Canary grass, timothy canary grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual; caespitose. Culms 70-150 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-20 cm long; 6-10 mm wide. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 2.5-17 cm long; 0.6-1.5 cm wide. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 2.9-5.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 2.9-5.5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged narrowly; winged above; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Lower glume apex truncate, or obtuse. Upper glume elliptic; 2.9-5.5 mm long; 1.3-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged above; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Upper glume apex truncate, or obtuse. Florets:  Basal sterile florets similar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 0.7-1.5 mm long; 0.33 length of fertile lemma; glabrous. Fertile lemma elliptic; laterally compressed; 2.2-3.8 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent; hairy all along. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous; 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back. Flower: Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 1.4-1.6 mm long. Hilum linear"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  In Australia, "grows in areas susceptible to flooding"  (NSW PlantNET).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2011.