Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Phalaris amethystina
Trin., Poaceae
No images for this taxon


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  yes

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual; caespitose. Culms 30-60 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 8-15 cm long; 2-7 mm wide. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; 1.5-4.5 cm long; 1-1.4 cm wide. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets obovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 4.7-6.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 4.7-6.2 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; winged narrowly; 3-5 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Lower glume apex acute, or acuminate. Upper glume elliptic; 4.7-6.2 mm long; 1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; winged on keel; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume surface scabrous; rough on veins. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate. Florets: Basal sterile florets similar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear; 1.5-1.9 mm long; 0.5 length of fertile lemma; glabrous. Fertile lemma elliptic; laterally compressed; 3.2-4.2 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent; hairy all along. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous; 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back. Flower: Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 2.1-2.2 mm long. Hilum linear"  (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Chile (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 556)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 9 APR 2011.