Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Pennisetum purpureum
Schumach., Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia)).
High risk, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific)).
Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment  (U.S.)).
Reject, score: 18 (Go to the risk assessment  (U.S. (Florida))).

Other Latin names:  Cenchrus purpureus (Schumach.) Morrone; Pennisetum benthamii Steud.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiang cao

English: elephant grass, merker grass, Napier grass

French: canne fourragère, fausse canne à sucre, herbe éléphant

Japanese: pokao

Kosraean: acfucsracsracsr

Palauan: bokso

Pohnpeian: poakso, puk-soh

Samoan: vao povi, vao povi

Spanish: elefante, hierba elefante, pasto elefante, yerba elefante, zacate elefante

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Robust perennial [grass] 2-4 or even 6-7 m tall, culms erect and to 2.5 cm thick near base, branched, distally pubescent; leaves usually pubescent; sheaths often bearded at the nodes; ligule densely hairy, rim-like; blades linear, finely pointed, (20-) 30-50 (-100) cm long, (1-) 1.5-3 (-4) cm wide, margins finely scabrid and razor-sharp; inflorescence spike-like, dense, yellowish or purplish, 8-30 cm long, usually 15 cm or more, 1.5-3 cm thick (excluding the bristles), main axis hairy; bristled numerous, outer ones short, inner ones longer and sparsely short-hairy at base, one long and stout and 2-4 cm long; sterile lemma 5-6 cm long, 5 nerved; fertile lemma 4.5-5 mm long, indistinctly 3-nerved; anther tips usually with tuft of minute hairs" (Stone, 1970; p. 220).

"Grande herbacée pérenne en touffe pouvant atteindre 3 à 4 m de hauteur, reconnaissable à ses longues feuilles de 30 à 120 cm de longueur et ses longues inflorescences de forme cylindrique en « queue de chat » atteignant 30 cm de long, de couleur jaunâtre, parfois pourpre"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 38).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "The grass spreads and colonizes wastelands and grows along marshes and ditchbanks, in forest clearings and margins, and in perennial tropical crops.  Although prospering in moist conditions or high rainfall, it can also survive droughts and fires.  It is well adapted to the humid regions of the tropics an, although it grows especially well in lowland areas, it also can grow well at elevations as high as 1,500 m or more. It grows well on a wide range of soils and in many habitats. Although it can persist and compete in dry, sandy soils, it grows best in rich, well-drained soils. It does not grow well in waterlogged soils but does flourish in irrigated lands. It is also very drought-resistant and can survive long dry periods. It colonizes along roadsides, ditchbanks, watercourses in marshy depression, and in open places in forests. In moist rich places it forms reed jungles, thereby eliminating the use of such land for cultivation" (Holm et al., 1977; pp. 367, 369).  Forms dense perennial stands, difficult to penetrate, which inhibits establishment of other vegetation. 

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in fields, pastures, and along roadsides, especially in mesic to wet sites, 10-1,220 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1579, 1581). In New Caledonia, "parfois spontané et abondant en lieux humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 61). Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; pp. 242-243).

Propagation:  Seed (wind-dispersed), tillers and cuttings.

Native range:  Tropical Africa, now widely introduced in warm countries.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 52)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34841)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Whistler 1424
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418101)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"It has presumably been introduced to the Island as a pasture grass". Vouchers cited: P. Ralston 11 (A, K), F.C. Allen CHR 224496 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 38, 42)
cf. purpureum. "Nous avons observé une touffe dense dans le jardin botanique de Vaitea" (Meyer, 2008; p. 38).
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 101)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31350 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 589045)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane (2000) (p. 6)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 589039)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 589043)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 589044)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 3)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 589040)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Subject of eradication program.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 8)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: KW 14092
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 432419)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 589062)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 133)
Vouchers cited: Glassman 2520 (US), Glassman 2580 (US), Takamatsu 907 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: P. Raynor 118 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 203)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 58529 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 126461)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 126462)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 126463)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 438253)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 589033)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 42822)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 488582)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 358)
Vouchers cited: DA 8292, DA 2063, DA 7960
Likely to become naturalized.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 342)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 126
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5028 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 126445)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 126449)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 342)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2506, Whistler & Guerin 26, BRY 26305
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 28 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492120)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 558119)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38243)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 220)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4050 (GUAM), Stone 4705 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. 3)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 589063)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1579, 1581)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (pp. 30-31)
Voucher cited: Starr, Starr & Hagashino 081230-02 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1579, 1581)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1579, 1581)
Voucher cited: Munro 508 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1579, 1581)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110114 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1579, 1581)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 12)
Voucher: Imada 2003-186 (BISH 697797)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 402208)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697797)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 53)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Wetlands"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 381)
Abondante en lieux humides.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Däniker 1672
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 250)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168752, CHR 168756
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 55)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 10)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3096)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schum.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 589046)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1974) (voucher ID: BNM 10068)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 55)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 147)
A serious pest in young Araucaria plantations at Wau.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 372)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Whistler 2372
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1973) (voucher ID: BISH 417644)
Taxon name on voucher: Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 98)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Moderate invader.
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 28)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 55)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 186)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 186)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 115)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 343)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 372)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 372)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 372)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 372)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 115)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 577)
"Escape from cultivation; on roadsides".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 372)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 67)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 367-371)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/envahissant"
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 58)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A major problem in the Galápagos Islands.

One of the most invasive weeds in Papua New Guinea (Warea Orapa, NARI, Papua New Guinea, communications to Aliens listserver)

Apparently recently introduced on Rarotonga, ‘Atiu and Mangaia, Cook Islands, and subject to an eradication program on Mangaia (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Miami-Dade County Dept. of Planning and Zoning, 2010).

Control: 

Physical:  "Individual plants can be cut out, all rhizomes must be removed"  (Weber, 2003; p. 313).  "Not-withstanding its value as forage, elephant grass has become one of the worst weeds in the tropics because of the difficulty of controlling it in croplands and fallow areas. Cultivation alone is usually insufficient to control it in croplands (Skerman and Riveros 1990). Frequent mowing will cause it to be replaced by other grasses"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Chemical:  "Larger infestations are controlled by cutting or burning off and treating any regrowth with 2,2-DPA"  (Weber, 2003; p. 313).  "The herbicide glyphosate provides acceptable control in at least aquatic sites (McCann and others 1996)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.