Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Passiflora maliformis
L., Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: conch apple, hard-shelled passionfruit, sweet calabash, sweet cup

French: pomme calabas, pomme calebasse

Maori (Cook Islands): ka‘atene Maori, katinga Maori, pārapōutini ‘enua, pārapōutini Maori

Rotuman: oi peul moumou

Samoan: pasio

Spanish: chalupa, curuba, granadilla de hueso

Tongan: vaine kai, vaine Tonga, vaini

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Leaves with blades entire, ovate, 13-17 x 6.5-9.5 cm, base rounded or subcordate, apex short acuminate, petioles 3-4 cm long with 1-2 pairs of sessile glands; stipules deciduous, floral bracts large, 3-parted, nearly enclosing the mature fruits; fruits spheroidal, 3.5-4 cm in diameter, fruit wall yellowish green, hard and woody, 5 mm thick; seed arils translucent white, grape-flavored" (Lorence et al., 1995; p. 43).

"Glabrous, woody, tendril-bearing vineLeaves alternate, ovate-elliptical, up to 15 or more cm long and 8 cm wide, base rounded or subcordate, apex acuminate, petioles 3-5 cm long, bearing 2 glands.  Flowers solitary, purplish, axillary on peduncles 5 or more cm long.  Fruit about 4 cm long, rind hard" (Yuncker, 1943; pp. 86-87).

"Liane ligneuse grimpante pouvant atteindre 3 à 6 m de longueur, reconnaissable à ses grandes feuilles simples, ovales, et ses gros fruits ronds à coque lisse, épaisse et dure, devenant pourpre à mâturité"  (Meyer, 2008; p. 33).

Habitat/ecology:  Naturalizes in disturbed areas from sea level to 300 m. In New Caledonia, "parfois cultivé; assez répandu en fourrés secondaires" (MacKee, 1994; p. 113).

Propagation:  Seed, spread by birds and animals.

Native range:  Northern South America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 161)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 168848)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430301)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 33, 42)
"Nous l’avons vu plantée à plusieurs endroits dans le village de Hanga Roa et subspontanée en bordure de route grimpant aux arbres" (Meyer, 2008; p. 33).
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 82)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 88)
Voucher: Flynn 7021 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 354)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 93)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 99)
Voucher: Flynn 7047 (PTBG)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 369)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 89)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 168830)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 618554)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Thithia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 669)
Voucher cited: Bryan 560
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Thithia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 168910)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 669)
Voucher cited: DA 12952
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 669)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 216, Degener & Ordonez 13673
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence & J.-Y. Meyer 9037 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39335)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39474)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12160 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11669 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643305)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 11852 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 649941)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38208)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10407 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642436)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
"Communément cultivée à Tahiti oú elle se naturalise". Voucher cited: J. Florence 2796 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5641 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553328)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5543 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553338)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 561524)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: D. Lorence 6417 (BISH, F, MO, PTBG, US)
Sparingly naturalized locally.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2459 (Z)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Maré introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Baumann 14562
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 5472, MacKee 7859, Schmid 1170 (NOU), MacKee 21041, MacKee 30330, MacKee 37924
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 164)
Voucher cited: CHR 169814
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 32)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 25)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 87)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9844 (BISH)
"Frequent in thickets as an escape".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 104)
"Forest edges".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10748 (PAP)
Naturalisée, menace pour la biodiversité.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 643230)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 427870)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 428253)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1923) (voucher ID: BISH 429254)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 74)
Voucher: Flynn 6889 (PTBG)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 240)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 62)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Soakai 1047 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15479
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168835)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 55)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: Lawrence 25
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15041
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41196)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168836)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 429070)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 518
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 424756)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora maliformis L.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 12, 37)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 32)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.

Comments:  On French Polynesia noxious weed list.

Control:  "La lutte manuelle par arrachage et coupe des lianes associée éventuellement à une lutte chimique par traitement des souches des lianes non déracinables sont réalisables" (Meyer, 2008; p. 33).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 APR 2009.