Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Passiflora foetida
L., Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 26 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: dulce, kinahulo‘ atdao

Chinese: long zhu guo

Chuukese: bombom

English: fit-weed, love-in-a-mist, mossy passion flower, red fruit passionflower, running pop, scarlet fruited passion flower, stinking passionflower, wild passionfruit, wild water lemon

Fijian: loliloli ni kalavo, poniu, qaranidila, sou, vaini

French: Marie goujeat, Marie-Gougeat, passiflore, passiflore fétide, petite grenadille, poc-poc, poc-poc sauvage, toque molle

Hawaiian: lani wai, pohāpohā

I-Kiribati: te biku

Japanese: kusa-tokeiso

Kwara‘ae: kakalifaka, kwalo kakali

Nauruan: oatamo, watamo

Niuean: vine vao

Palauan: kudamono

Pohnpeian: pompom, pwompwomw, pwomwpwomp

Samoan: pāsio vao, pāsio vao, tapatapao

Spanish: bedoca, bejuco canastilla, bembillo, catapanza, cinco-llagas, granadilla, granadilla cimarrona, granadilla colorado, granadilla de culebra, granadilla montes, granadilla silvestre, injito colorado, parchita, pasiflora hedionda, pasionara hedionda, pedón, sandia de culebra, sandia de culebra, sandia de ratón, simito, vedoca

Tongan: vaine ‘ae kumā, vaine ‘initia

Yapese: tumatis, tutumis

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A fetid, herbaceous, hairy, perennial vine, scrambling or climbing to 5 m or more by axillary, unbranched, coiling tendrils with soft to hard, yellow to brown hairs; stems slender, green, round, covered with yellowish fine hairs; leaves alternate, thin, ovate to ovate-oblong, 4.5 to 14 cm long, 3.5 to 13 cm wide, 3-lobed with central lobe slightly longer than others, base cordate, pale green or yellowish, soft but densely hairy, venation distinct; petiole 2 to 10 cm long; flowers solitary in leaf axils, on stalk 3.5 cm long, white to pale-purple or pinkish, about 3 cm across, within corolla is a collar or corona of 2 rows of purple filaments with white tips, spreading out flat and nearly as long as petals, flower subtended by prominent involucre of 3 pale green bracts that are 1- to 3-pinnately divided into numerous segments, the ultimate segments glandular; sepals 5, white, linear, 1.5 cm long, pale; petals 5, linear; stamens 5, anthers large; filaments united in a tube; carpels 3, syncarpous; pistils 3, each with 2- or 3-lobed stigma; ovary intermediate, 1-locular with many ovules; fruit an indehiscent berry or capsule, yellow, red or orange, globular, dry inflated, 2 to 3 cm long, surrounded by the shaggy involucral bracts; seeds numerous, wedge-shaped to ovate, about 4 mm long, with coarse reticulate pattern centrally each side, seeds covered with white, sweet pulp.  The filamentous corona with purple base and white in upper half, the prominent and persistent involucre of bracts that are pinnately divided, and the disagreeable odor of all parts when crushed are distinguishing characteristics of this species"  (Holm et al., 1997; p. 572).

"Perennial vine, the stems hispid, with tendrils; leaves 3-lobed, the lobing shallow to halfway to the midvein; lobe-apices acute; leaf base subcordate; both sides hispid-hirsute; blades 5-10 cm long, equally wide; petiole 2-5 cm long; flowers solitary in axils, 4-5 cm wide, purple and white on pedicels 3-7 cm long; fruit yellow to orange; subglobose, thin leathery-skinned, nearly 2 cm think, with many seeds; pulp scanty, sweetly tart.  The very finely laciniate sepals enclosing the fruit probably gave rise to the curious common name" (Stone, 1970; p. 430).

Habitat/ecology:  An invader on disturbed sites, forms a dense ground cover which prevents or delays the establishment of other species.  Favors wet areas.  "The plant thrives on many soil types, including peat, and prefers moist tropical areas and wet seasons in Australia and Hawaii, while frequenting drier areas in Fiji.  It is found most often in plantation crops, grows vigorously in neglected plantings, and because it tends to infest work roads and field borders the wee may spread into crops.  It is common on seashores, river banks, bushland, highway borders, wastelands, and seeks out disturbed areas.  In plantation crops of the tree habit, the weed tends to be most severe in mature plantings where there is some shade" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 572).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in disturbed sites, especially on dry rock outcrops, ‘a‘ā lava, and in sandy soils, 0-500 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1011).  In Fiji, "a scrambling and twining vine, naturalized as a weed along roadsides and in coastal thickets, patches of forest, and canefields at elevations from near sea level to about 200 m"  (Smith, 1981; pp. 667-668). Arid lowlands and moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 303). In Guam, "in waste ground, secondary thickets, and abandoned fields" (Stone, 1970; p. 430). In New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, plantation margins and rough pastures. Widespread at low altitudes" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 132). In New Caledonia, "assez commun comme mauvaise herbe" (MacKee, 1994; p. 113).

Propagation:  Seed, commonly eaten and dispersed by birds and mammals (Smith, 2002; p. 52).

Native range:  South America, now a pan-tropical weed.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 40)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3447
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 42)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 47)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3184
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430266)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 11703)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 168852)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 168854)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418118)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2327 (US), Fosberg 31424 (US, BISH, Fo)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 168871)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 168882)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1885 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 510 (US, BISH, Fo), Anderson 527 (US, BISH, Fo, NY), Bonham 3 (US, Fo), Fosberg 31372 (US), Moore 404 (US), Moore 309 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Ohba, T. (1994) (p. 60)
Voucher cited: CBM-BS-59042
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 168872)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 635252)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000036)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1949) (voucher ID: PTBG 22105)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 168881)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 512389)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 647706)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 34)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1762 (US), Falanruw 1717 (US), Evans 2427 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 647705)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 168877)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 572458)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 647707)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Recorded by the Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project. Not common.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 168887)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fano Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633447)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (pp. 7, 29)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 647709)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 6)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 21)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 63)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 658206)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24911)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Secondary forest"
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (pp. 59-60)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2409 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 120)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3929 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4082 (NY), M.J. Balick 4084 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 26313 (BISH), F.R. Fosberg 58406 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2409 (BISH), E.Y. Hosaka 3505 (BISH), N.L.H. Krauss 1884 (BISH), D.H. Lorence 8054 (MO, NY, PTBG, US), S. Perlman 21463 (PTBG), A. Raynor 54 (NY, PTBG), P. Raynor 151 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 730 (BISH), N.S. Tangalin 1258 (PTBG), C.Y.C. Wong 64 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 168886)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 168888)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 168889)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 168893)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438227)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 38731)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 32997)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27791)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 43595)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 50083)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Tomil Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 168892)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 90)
"Secondary forest"
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 561325)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 667-668)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 820
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 667-668)
Vouchers cited: Smith 6908, Bierhorst F17
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 168914)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 667-668)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 820, Degener & Ordonez 13686, DA 9481, DA 11350, Greenwood 820A, Smith 9341, DA 10747, DA 7045, DA 11740, DA 6033, DA 11810, DA 9945, DA 10606
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 14697)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 168908)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168912)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168913)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 168915)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, S.P. Perlman & M. Teikiteetini 9346 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601897)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000533)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 40604)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Thibault 1109 (PAP), J. Florence & M. Teikiteetini 9406 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 601617)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000534)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hatuta'a (Hatutu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1901) (voucher ID: BISH 1001078)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: B.G. Decker 653 (PAP), M.-H. Sachet 1268 (PAP), M.-H. Sachet & B.G. Decker 1879 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1974) (voucher ID: PTBG 13232)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Mohotani (Mohotane, Mohotane) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 6703 (PAP), J. Florence 7535 (PAP), J. Florence 8505 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 543319)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood, S.P. Perlman, J.-Y. Meyer & L. Teatiu 6415 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 28574)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B.G. Decker 2236 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 212)
Voucher cited: Grant 5255
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11651 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 607242)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643295)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 212)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 96
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J.-C. Jolinon 1392 (PAP); var. gossypifolia (N.A. Desvaux) C.F.P. Martius: C.L. Cartier 138 (PAP), C.L. Cartier 239 (PAP),
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 168799)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 212)
Vouchers cited: BRY 25364, BRY 25737
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3391 (PAP), J. Florence 3500 (PAP), J. Florence 3682 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg & M.-H. Sachet 63119 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491358)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492096)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 212)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 63430
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607232)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 212)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 3, Grant 4566, BRY 25984
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 9735 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 64993 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 65011 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 606173)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 647713)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 698950)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2989 (PAP), J. Florence 3028 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 647711)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 698951)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 9999 (PAP), J. Florence 4074 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491620)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Rangiroa (Rairoa) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633834)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 2008 (US), Sachet 2058 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: M.-H. Sachet 2008 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6014 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 543337)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 430-431)
Voucher cited: Stone 4012 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 507736)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 647708)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H109921 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood et al. 10190 (BISH, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbarium Pacificum Staff (1996) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: Maurice Major s.n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1011)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38212)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 45264)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 27)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 80521)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 603888)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 603889)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
var. gossypifolia
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
var. hispida
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 12)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 180-181)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58592 (US), Scully 117N (US), Thaman & Manner 54 (SUVA), Swarbrick 9581 (BRIU)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438354)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19312
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Däniker 2124a (Z), Schmid 634
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2124 (Z)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
"Dry forests, coastal"
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 382)
Assez commune.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Franc A 840 s.loc., MacKee 3642, MacKee 24519, MacKee 30869, MacKee 37300, MacKee 40556
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 32)
Voucher cited: Sykes 1225
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 6)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 41)
Voucher cited: Whistler 10851
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 9)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 43571)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 168883)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 646436)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1996) (voucher ID: BISH 651085)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 602)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida var. hispida Killip.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Kayangel (Ngcheangel) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 168884)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 647710)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 48188)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 19)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (pp. 8, 19)
Carp Resort. In flower bed, may be cultivated.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 82)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 387)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 53)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 132)
Widespread at low altitudes.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Nu‘utele Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 427954)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Voucher: Flynn 6944 (PTBG, US, SAMOA)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 168850)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 283)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28761)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 168851)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 168853)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439198)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1876) (voucher ID: BISH 607080)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 402118)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 97)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘afeva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640432)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kao Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 639487)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15727
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41186)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168840)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 168841)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15807
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Nomuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168839)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Tofua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 645867)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
‘Uiha Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
"Frequent throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41295)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: Ilolahia 186, Soakai 307, Soakai 471
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 192)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15159
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 36539)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 41252)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168838)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3029)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 175)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 884a (US), Sachet 878 (US), McFarlane 77 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633251)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 424757)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora foetida L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 180)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Alofi Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (pp. 12, 37)
Cette liane herbacée est abondamment naturalisée en zone ouverte (cultures, lisières de forêt). Ses fruits charnus violets sont disséminés par les oiseaux frugivores.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 107)
Secondary forest.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 223)
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 570)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 52)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 570)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 52)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1994) (p. 185)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 570)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 104)
In thickets on wasteland.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 573)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 570)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 573)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 67)
Naturalised
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 68, 78)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 122)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 37)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 573)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Envahissant"
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (pp. 570, 574)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés.
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 29)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 52083 (US), Fosberg 52151 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 56)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2697

Control: 

Physical:  Physical removal of the entire plant with roots is effective if done repeatedly for an extended period"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 28).

Chemical:  Herbicides like triclopyr (Garlon 4) or glyphosate (Roundup) at recommended rates can be used"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 28).

Biological: See Waterhouse (1994; pp. 184-189) for natural enemies.

Additional information:
Photo and additional information at the University of Guam "Plants of Guam" web site.
Information from the Global Invasive Species Database.
Fact sheet from the Government of Queensland, Australia. (PDF format).

Additional online information about Passiflora foetida is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Passiflora foetida as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Passiflora foetida may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1966. Voucher specimen #BNM602(Cheatham 77).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1876. Voucher specimen #BISH 607080 (Sachet, M.-H. 2246).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1901. Voucher specimen #BISH 1001078 (S.Perlman 10079).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1921. Voucher specimen #BISH 168851 (Eames, A.J. 87).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 168853 (Christophersen, E. 354).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 168887 (Takamatsu, M. 90).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1936. Voucher specimen #BISH 168888 (Takamatsu, M. 730).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1939. Voucher specimen #BISH 168854 (Yuncker, T.G. 9398).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1940. Voucher specimen #BISH 168915 (Degener, O. 13686).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 168877 (Fosberg, F.R. 24765).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 168883 (Fosberg, F.R. 25709).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 168889 (Wong, C.C.Y. 64).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 168892 (Hosaka, E.Y. 3273).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 168893 (Fosberg, F.R. 26313).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 647706 (Fosberg, F.R. 25172).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1946. Voucher specimen #BISH 647707 (Fosberg, F.R. 24765).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 168914 (Smith, A.C. 6908).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 402118 (Giffen 36).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1948. Voucher specimen #BISH 561325 (Wong, C.C.Y. 323).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1949. Voucher specimen #BISH 168886 (Glassman, S.F. 2409).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 168871 (Fosberg, F.R. 31424).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 168872 (Fosberg, F.R. 31372).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1950. Voucher specimen #BISH 168884 (Fosberg, F.R. 32098).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 168881 (Kondo, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 168882 (Kondo, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 168838 (Yuncker, T.G. 15159).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 168839 (Yuncker, T.G. 15807).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 168840 (Yuncker, T.G. 15727).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 168912 (Smith, A.C. 9625).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 168913 (Smith, A.C. 9341).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 41252 (Flolahia, V. 186).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 14697 (Pillay, S. 11810).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 41186 (Soakai, E. 307).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 41295 (Soakai, E. 471).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1959. Voucher specimen #BISH 168852 (Wisner, A.W. 12).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 168841 (Hotta, M. 4588).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 168908 (Koroiveibau, D. 14461).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 647710 (Fosberg, F.R. 47531).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 647705 (Evans, M. 2427).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1966. Voucher specimen #BISH 647708 (Evans, M. 1611).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1967. Voucher specimen #BISH 168799 (Smith, H.M. 96).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 28761 (Bristol, M.L. 2233).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 168850 (Walker, A.K.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1968. Voucher specimen #BISH 507736 (Cushing Falanruw, M.V. 939).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1969. Voucher specimen #BISH 36539 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1297).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1972. Voucher specimen #BISH 80521 (Russell, D.J. 29).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1974. Voucher specimen #BISH 418118 (Whistler, W.A. W 1464).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1975. Voucher specimen #BISH 430266 (Whistler, W.A. W 3148).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1977. Voucher specimen #BISH 607242 (Baré, D. 107).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 424757 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1598).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 427954 (Whistler, W.A. W 4119).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438227 (Fosberg, F.R. 58406).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1978. Voucher specimen #BISH 438354 (Fosberg, F.R. 58592).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1979. Voucher specimen #BISH 439198 (Cox, P.A. 357).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1980. Voucher specimen #BISH 647709 (Fosberg, F.R. 60313).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491358 (Florence, J. 3682).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 491620 (Florence, J. 4074).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 492096 (Florence, J. 3391).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 572458 (Aguon, C. 106).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 603888 (Wester, L. 2093).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 603889 (Wester, L. 2093).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 607232 (Fosberg, F.R. 63430).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 639487 (G.Buelow 2963).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 640432 (G.Buelow 3268).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 645867 (G.Buelow 2570).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 698950 (Florence, J. 2276).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 698951 (Florence, J. 3028).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 543337 (Florence, J. 6014).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 543319 (Florence, J. 6703).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 635252 (Herbst, D.R. 7276).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000036 (Herbst, D.R. 7276).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 512389 (Flis, J. LR11307).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 606173 (Fosberg, F.R. 65011).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 647711 (Fosberg, F.R. 64680).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 647713 (Fosberg, F.R. 65011).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 601617 (J.Florence 9416).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 601897 (J.Florence 9346).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000533 (W.L.Wagner 6166).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000534 (S.Perlman 10079).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 633834 (Florence 9999).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643295 (Florence 11651).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633251 (E.J.Funk Wake 18).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 633447 (A.K.Kepler 93-25).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 646436 (Slappy, S. LR26397).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 651085 (Slappy, S. LR26397).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1996. Voucher specimen #BISH 658206 (Flynn, T. 6043).

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. 2013. Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer (online resource).

Englberger, Konrad. 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei. 29 pp.

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Foreman, D. B. 1971. A check list of the vascular plants of Bougainville, with descriptions of some common forest trees. Botany Bulletin No. 5. Division of Botany, Department of Forests. Lae, New Guinea. 194 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1983. Natural history of Cousin Island. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Otobed, D./Sachet, M.-H./Oliver, R. L./Powell, D. A./Canfield, J. E. 1980. Vascular plants of Palau with vernacular names. Department of Botany, The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 43 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1969. Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 123. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica 15:1-295.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias. 1988. Dicot weeds, vol. 1. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 335 pp.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herbarium Pacificum Staff. 1996. New Hawaiian pest plant records for 1995. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1995. Part 2: Notes. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 46:3-8.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. John Wiley & Sons. 1129 pp.

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Lavergne, Christophe. 2006. List des especes exotiques envahissantes a La Reunion. Unpublished manuscript (Excel file). .

Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy. 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 26 pp.

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McMullen, C. K. 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Comstock Pub. Assoc., Ithaca, N.Y. 370 p.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). In: Sherley, G. (tech. ed.). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. 190 pp.

Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2007. Rapport de mission sur l'Ile d'Uvea (Wallis & Futuna) du 6 au 17 Novembre 2007: Inventaire preliminaire de la flore vasculaire secondaire [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement Supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 39 pp.

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National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1995. Voucher specimen #PTBG38212(Art Whistler 9897).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 1998. Voucher specimen #PTBG32997(M. J. Balick 3929).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2000. Voucher specimen #PTBG38731(M. J. Balick 4084).

National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.). 2002. Voucher specimen #PTBG283(Tim Flynn 6944).

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Smith, Albert C. 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. Volume 2. 810 pp.

Smith, Nicholas M. 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide. Environment Centre NT, Inc. 112 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 51 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2000. Report to the Government of Niue on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 34 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 78 pp.

Space, James C./Flynn, Tim. 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 83 pp.

Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 103 pp.

Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie. 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. USDA Forest Service, Hilo, Hawai‘i. 227 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. 2000. Invasive plant species on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia.  USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 43 pp.

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Waterhouse, D. F. 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 141 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1994. Biological control of weeds: Southeast Asian prospects. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 302 pp.

Waterhouse, D. F. 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the Southern and Western Pacific. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 93 pp.

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 MAY 2011.