Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Passiflora edulis
Sims, Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji dan guo

English: black passionfruit, maracuya, passion fruit, passionflower, purple granadilla, purple passion fruit, purple water lemon, qarandila, yellow passion fruit

French: fruit de la passion, grenadille, grenadine

Hawaiian: liliko‘i

Maori (Cook Islands): ka‘atene papa‘ā, katingapapa‘ā, pārapōutini papa‘ā

Palauan: kudamono

Pohnpeian: pompom, pwompwomw

Samoan: pāsio, pāsio, pāsio esi, pāsio esi, pāsio fai vai inu, pāsio fai vai inu

Spanish: maracuyá

Tongan: vaine, vaine Tonga

Yapese: lelbuy, tumatis

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Glabrous, perennial, tendril climber; stems sometimes " angular, up to 15 m high.  Leaves:  Deeply three-lobed, lobes elliptic to oblong, apex pointed, shortly tapering, margins serrated, glossy dark-green above, stipules small, linear-lanceolate to 10 mm long.  Flowers:  White, except base of corona which is purple; caronal filaments curly, as long as petals; 50-75 mm across. Fruits:  Globose berries, greenish-yellow turning deep purple, glabrous, to 60 mm long, pulp sweet and edible, rind hard" (Henderson, 1995; p. 106).

Habitat/ecology:  "Altitude and latitude do not appear to be a constraint other than through the temperatures associated with them. Purple passionfruit grows best in a subtropical climate, and the yellow passionfruit prefers a tropical climate with fullseason warm days and nights. Generally, annual rainfall should be at least 900 mm. Rainfall in Indian areas that grow passionfruit ranges from 1000 to 2500 mm/year (Morton 1987). The species is shallow-rooted but withstands drought by defoliating. Passionfruit tolerates a wide variety of soils and grows best on well-drained sandy loams with pH's of 6.5 to 7.5 (Morton 1987). Passionfruit is moderately intolerant of shade, requires trees, brush, or fences for support, and benefits from but does not require soil disturbance for reproduction. Wild plants are found in broken forests, stream-bottom galleries, fencerows, abandoned farms, and neglected city lots. Young plants are eaten by livestock, so passionfruit is almost never found in moderate to heavily grazed areas"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).  Cultivated for fruit, from which it may escape. Smothers trees and shrubs. 

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized in mesic forest and shrubland, 80-1,220 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1010-1011).  In Fiji, "a cultivated and sparingly naturalized vine found from near sea level to an elevation of 850 m"  (Smith, 1981; p. 668). In New Caledonia, "parfois cultivé; assez répandu en fourrés secondaires" (MacKee, 1994; p. 113). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 302).

Propagation:  Seed; often planted by humans. Seeds spread by animals; in Hawai‘i, especially by feral pigs. Birds may also spread the seeds.

Native range:  "The purple passionfruit is a native of southern Brazil through Paraguay to northern Argentina. The yellow form of passionfruit is probably native of the Amazon region of Brazil (Morton 1987)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 207)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 20)
"This species is widely cultivated for its fruit. It is much liked by fruit-eating birds and often spread by them into the wild". Vouchers cited: R.D. Hoogland 8778 (CANB), A.C. Beauglehole 5799 (CANB)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 10)
"This species is widely cultivated for its fruit. It is much liked by fruit-eating birds and often spread by them into the wild". Voucher cited: G. Uhe 1159 (K)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 76)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 82)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 665098)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 88)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 93)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 99)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420173)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 21)
Purple-fruited cultivar.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 174-175)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 120)
Voucher cited: M.J. Balick 4082 (NY, PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 38798)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 174-175)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 668)
Vouchers cited: DA 15093, DA 12252, DA 7363
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 212)
Vouchers cited: Petard 1986:236, Florence 6655
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 541764)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 174-175)
Cultivated?
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 652692)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22230)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1010-1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1010-1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1010-1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1010-1011)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Hughes 107 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1010-1011)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 174-175)
Cultivated? Presence not verified.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 31197)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 648531)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 174-175)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 102)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 114)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 180)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 113)
Vouchers cited: Administration Pénitentiaire 118, Baumann & Guillaumin 7191, MacKee 22939
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 126-127)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (pp. 459-460)
Subject of control program.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 936)
"Well-established on Raoul Island where it grows so abundantly on and near the forest margin in some places that attempts have been made to eliminate it".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: CHR 169819
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 24)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10140 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 45)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 86)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 81)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 43)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11218
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 97)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 73)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 191)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15666
Sometimes escapes.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 168842)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 168843)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 55)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 436745)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora edulis Sims
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-11)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 37)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 6)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated, escaped in forests in mountain valleys; 100-1900 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 104)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 936)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 67)
Cultivated only
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated, escaped in forests in mountain valleys; 100-1900 m.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 122)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Cultivé/naturalisé"
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 27)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
South Africa
South Africa
South Africa (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Henderson, Lesley (1995) (p. 106)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)

Comments:  A problem species in New Zealand and South Africa.

Control: 

Chemical:  "Difficult if growing over non-target plants. Sensitive to triclopyr ester at 10% product in oil applied to individual vines (Pat Bily, TNC). May also be controlled by treating foliage on ground, cutting the stems at base of hosts and treatmenting the weed stump"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 FEB 2010.