Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Passiflora caerulea
L., Passifloraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xi fan lian

English: blue passion flower, palikea

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Plant glabrous and often glaucus throughout; stipules semi-ovate; petioles 2-6-glandular, the glands stipitate; blades palmately 5 (rarely 3, 7 or 9)-lobed nearly to the base, the lobes linear-oblong to broadly ovate-oblong, up to 10 cm long, usually obtuse, entire; bracts broadly ovate, 1.5-2.5 cm long, borne close to the flower base; flowers up to 10 cm wide, white or pinkish; calyx tube cup-shaped, the sepals and petals oblong; corona filaments in 4 series, those of the 2 outer radiate, from a half to as long as the petals, blue at the apex, white at the middle, purple at the base, the inner filaments much shorter; operculum filamentose part way; fruit ovoid or subglobose, about 4 cm in diameter, seeds coarsely reticulate."  (Macbride, 1941; p. (4/1):101)

Habitat/ecology:  "In New Zealand, coastal areas, lowland and coastal shrublands and forest margins, light gaps, roadsides, wastelands, farm and orchard hedges, domestic gardens. Prefers forest and shrubland margins and fertile soil. Known to enter and fill forest light gaps, and perceived to be capable of causing damage by smothering plants. It is a climbing plant able to reach the tree canopy and cover a large area."  (Weeds in New Zealand web site)

Propagation:  Seed. Fruits eaten and spread by animals and birds.

Native range:  East-central Brazil to Argentina, widely cultivated.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 492, 537-538, 556)
"En RC, está presente en varios puntos del pueblo de San Juan Bautista.  Seria dramático que esta liana logre naturalizarse en la mirtisilva fernandeziana donde podria causar problemas al igual que los generados por Lardizabala biternata Ruiz & Pav.".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 93)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1010)
Cultivated and persists.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1010)
Cultivated and persists.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 664371)
Taxon name on voucher: Passiflora caerulea
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Guangxi, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 935)
"Forest margins and scrub".
Escape from cultivation.

Control:  "Stems layer, stumps resprout so followup and control as needed to eradicate. A few seedlings may appear in bared areas. Use herbicide only when roots cannot be pulled. 

Physical:  Pull roots up (all year round). Cut off above ground or tie stems in air to prevent them coming in contact with the ground and taking root. 

Chemical:  1. Cut down and paint stump (all year round): glyphosate (200ml/L) or metsulferon-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L) or Tordon Brushkiller (100ml /L) or triclopyr 600 EC (100ml/L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (500ml/L) or Banvine (200ml/L) or Woody Weedkiller (400ml/L).
2. Spray large masses on ground where roots cannot be pulled (spring-autumn): Banvine (120ml/10L) or Woody Weedkiller (240ml/L) or triclopyr 600 EC (30ml/10L) or Yates Hydrocotyle Killer (15ml/L)"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2011.