Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paspalum notatum
Flugge, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bai xi cao

English: Bahia grass, water couch

French: herbe de Bahia

Spanish: cañamazo, gengibrillo, grama batatais, grama dulce, grama ferro, gramalote, gramilla blanca, pasto bahía, pasto horqueta

Habit:  grass

Description: 

Genus:  "Annuals or, if perennials, then usually rhizomatous or stoloniferous; culms solid.  Sheaths open, slightly compressed; ligule membranous, entire; blades usually flat, often broad, margins scabrous, nonauriculate.  Inflorescence a panicle of 1 to numerous unilateral spicate or racemose branches; spikelets subsessile or short-pedicellate, borne in pairs or singly in 2 rows on 1 side of a flattened, occasionally broadly winged rachis, dorsally compressed, plano-convex, 2-flowered, the first floret sterile, the second floret perfect, disarticulating below the glumes; glumes unequal, first glume usually absent, second glume and first lemma usually subequal, broad and rounded at apex and slightly exceeding second lemma; second lemma usually obtuse, rounded on the back, indurate, smooth, glossy, indistinctly nerved, the margins inrolled and clasping the palea, apex awnless; palea broad, flat or slightly convex and of similar texture to lemma; stamens 3.  Caryopsis strongly flattened dorsally, suborbicular to broadly ovoid-ellipsoid"  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1574-1575).

Species:  "Rhizome stout; leaf blades folded or flat, 20-30 cm long, 5-10 mm broad; flowering culms 45-90 cm high, the racemes 2, digitate, usually recurved, ascending, about 10 cm long; spikelets ovate to obovate, glabrous, brownish-tinged, shiny, 2.5-4 mm long" (Smith, 1979; p. 137).

"Habit: Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 15-50 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades spreading; 2-30 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Inflorescence: Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2(-3); paired; unilateral; 2.5-12 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 0.5 cm long. Rhachis wingless; angular; 1 mm wide. Spikelet packing abaxial; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; plano-convex; obtuse; 2.5-3.8 mm long; falling entire. Glumes: Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 1 times length of spikelet; cartilaginous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse. Florets: Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; elliptic; 1 times length of spikelet; cartilaginous; 1 -veined; without lateral veins; obtuse. Fertile lemma ovate; gibbous; 2-3 mm long; indurate; pallid; without keel. Lemma surface striate. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea involute; indurate" (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i (Kaua‘i), "it is not uncommon along the roadsides, in pastures and lawns... It forms dense mats of vegetation, spreading by large, coarse stolons" (Lorence & Flynn, 1999; p. 6).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "A native of tropical America, this species has been taken to other tropical areas for trial as a pasture grass"  (Smith, 1979; p. 137).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 337)
Vouchers cited: DA 8248, DA 2351, DA 8313, DA 8314, DA 8571, DA 10835, DA 9032, DA 2351
Escapes noted.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 82)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 59641 (US, BISH, POM, NY), Stone 4853 (GUAM), P. H. Moore 808 (US, Guam)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David/Flynn, Tim (1999) (p. 6)
Voucher cited: T. Flynn et al. 6127 (BISH, K, PTBG, US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 29)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer & Bartlett H100203 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H70401 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer, Bily & Michailidis H60312 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 33)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80605 (BISH, PTBG)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 102)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 6)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 102)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 268)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Control information from the Bugwood Wiki.


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This page was created on 30 DEC 2003 and was last updated on 25 JUN 2009.