Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Paspalum dilatatum
Poir., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: mao hua que bai

English: caterpillar grass, dallis grass, golden crown grass, Leichardt grass, paspalum, water grass, water paspalum

French: herbe codaya, herbe de dallis, herbe de miel, herbe sirop, millet bâtard, paspalum, paspalum dilaté

Japanese: shimasuzumenohie

Niuean: hiku nua

Spanish: camalote, chepica gigante, grama de agua, gramilla, pasto dallis, pasto miel, zacate dilación

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted perennials [grass] to 180 cm tall, mostly less; culms mostly erect; glabrous; sheaths compressed, lower ones pubescent basally, upper ones glabrous; ligules to 3-4 mm long, membranous; blades 6-25 (rarely to 35) cm long, (3-) 5-15 mm wide; flat, pubescent at base, margins slightly scabrous; racemes usually 3-5, nodding, 4-10 cm long; rachises narrowly winged, 1-1.2 mm wide; spikelets paired, 3-4 mm long, green or purplish, plano-convex, ovate, acute; glume and sterile lemma alike, 5-9-nerved, apiculate, margins ciliate, obscurely pubescent on the back; fertile lemma 2.5 x 2 mm, indurated; caryopsis 2 mm long, reddish-brown, elliptic" (Stone, 1970; pp. 216-217).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, forests, freshwater wetlands, riparian habitats.  A native of moist grassland, this species grows best in moist soils of high fertility.  The dense growth habit smothers all ground flora and prevents recruitment of native shrubs and trees.  Established plants are drought tolerant and tolerate heavy grazing"  (Weber, 2003; p. 304).  "Occasional to locally common on roadsides and sometimes in croplands, but it is not a major pest of crops" (Whistler, 1983; p. 92). "The species prefers wet situations but on low ground may extend from rather dry prairies to marshy meadows.  The plant succeeds on light soils or heavy clay soils and is drought-resistant and frost-sensitive"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 358).

In New Caledonia, "répandu et apprécié comme espèce fourragère; commun aussi spontané" (MacKee, 1994; p. 60).

Propagation:  "It produces large quantities of seeds which are dispersed by water and animals  (Weber, 2003; p. 304).

Native range:  Tropical America but widely introduced as a forage species.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 37)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Introduced as a pasture grass and now common, with a tendency to weediness". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 2036 (K), L.M. Bingley 5(K), R.D. Hoogland 8752 (CANB)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Introduced as a pasture grass and now common, with a tendency to weediness". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1479 (A), M. Lazarides 8052 (CANB), W.R. Sykes NI 444 (CHR)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 346)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum dilatatum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 337-338)
Vouchers cited: DA 9059, DA 2989
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rambi Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 337-338)
Voucher cited: DA 5743
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 337-338)
Voucher cited: DA 8918
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 337-338)
Voucher cited: DA 8730
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 337-338)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood Mar. 1921, DA 11841, DA 7839, DA 7891, Gillespie 3606, DA 3967, DA 7965, DA 7507, DA 7387, DA 8026, DA 1672, DA 7690, DA 7484
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42444)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum dilatatum
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 38276)
Taxon name on voucher: Paspalum dilatatum Poir.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 104)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 104)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Stone 4080 (GUAM), Stone 4716 (GUAM), MacGregor 516
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 54)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1576)
Voucher cited: Forbes 205.H (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1576)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1576)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1576)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1576)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1576)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 60-61)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 60-61)
Voucher cited: Franc 2190
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 60-61)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 556)
"Shingly roadsides, waste land, ditch banks, pasture, consolidated sand dunes".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (pp. 173-174)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 248)
Voucher cited: CHR 168806
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 54)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9721 (BISH), Yuncker 9868 (BISH)
"Occasional in waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 45)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 64)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 358-361)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 54)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 97)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 101)
Voucher cited: Soakai 181
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (pp. 58-59)
Vouchers cited: Hürlimann 305, Yuncker 15160
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 53)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 95)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 361)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 96)
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 342)
On grasslands.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 361)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 358-361)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 358-361)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 358-361)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 96)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 566)
"Shingly roadsides, waste land, ditch banks, pasture, consolidated sand dunes".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 358-361)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 358-361)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 304)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 267)

Comments:  A problem species in Hawai‘i and New Zealand.

Control: 

Physical:  "Small plants can be dug out, rhizomes must be removed to prevent regrowth.  Plants regenerate rapidly after cutting, so mowing is best combined with chemical control".

Chemical:  "An effective herbicide for young plants is paraquat, mature plants are best sprayed with glyphosate"  (Weber, 2003; p. 304).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 19 JAN 2011.